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Full text of "Schwarzenau: A Journal of Dunker History (1941 - 1942)"

LIBRARY 

6ETHAM1' 81BUOAL ^t^ 

HS5 W. Van Buren S.re.l 
" Chicago 24, >"=^^'' 



FOR REFERENCE 

Do Not Take From This Room 
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in 2011 with funding from 

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SCHWARZENAU 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor, F. E. Mallott, Professor of Church History Bethany Biblical Seminary 
Assistant Editor, Elgin S. Mover Contributing Editor, L. D. Rose 

Volume III OCTOBER, 1941 Number One 



CONTENTS 



Editorial 



DuNKERS AS Publishers 
Glen McFadden 



Factors in the Development of the Student 

Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions 22 

William M. Beahm 



Lower Miami Church 36 

Ross L. N of singer 

RoANN Church of the Brethren, Roann, Indiana 47 

Bruce Flora 

LIBRARY 

BETHANY SIBLICU SEMINARY 

3435 »V, ¥,n Siirsn Street 
Chicago 24, liiinob 



WHO'S WHO IN THIS ISSUE 

William M. Beahm, A.M., D.D., Professor of Christian Theology 
and Missions of Bethany Biblical Seminary and is about to 
write a Ph.D. as a further academic title. The paper presented 
herein is a brief presentation of the body of his doctoral thesis. 
Publication as a book is a distinct possibility. 

Glen McFadden, A.B. of Manchester College is a Senior in Bethany 
Biblical Seminary. He has had experience as teacher and pas- 
tor. The paper here presented is the prize-winning essay of 
the Judy Essay Contest. 

Bruce Flora, A.B. of Bridgewater College is a student-pastor of 
the Roann (Ind.) Church while he continues his work in 
Bethany Biblical Seminary. 

Ross Noffsinger, A.B., of Manchester College is a student-pastor 
of the Portland (Ind.) Church in connection with work in 
Bethany Biblical Seminary. He is a native son of the his- 
torical church of which he writes. 




AS WE GO ON 

With this issue we launch Volume III. In this number we are 
happy to present the prize-winning essay that emerged from the Judy 
Essay Contest. The prizes of this writing contest were offered by 
Mr. Will Judy, of the Judy Publishing Co., Chicago. It was Mr. 
Judy's genuine interest in our denominational history and an under- 
standable pride in his own craft which proposed the subject "Dunkers 
as Publishers." Glen McFadden of Michigan City and Bernard V. 
King of McPherson, Kansas, produced the winning manuscripts. 



A congregational record is always of value. A record of one con- 
gregation checked with another will often show significant likenesses. 
There is a correlation between denominational and national life. The 
story written by Bruce Flora is that of one of those congregations, 
committed to practicing the simple life, which rode with the popular 
current in the palmy days of a flush of American financial fever. All 
who read may well ponder. 



Bro. John Puterbaugh of Rossburg, Ohio, is particularly inter- 
ested in locating any descendant of Michael Pfoutz, an elder of the 
Colonial Church. He writes "in my wife's ancestry is a Sarah Pfoutz 
that could be a granddaughter of the immigrant, Michael Pfoutz." 
Bro. Puterbaugh also makes reference to his own "great-great- 
great-grandfather, Joseph Rohrer, born in Pennsylvania, the first 
pioneer settler in Clay Township, Montgomery County, Ohio. His 
daughter Mary was the first woman baptized in the Church of the 
Brethren west of the Great Miami River." Does this register with 
anyone? Don't hesitate to speak if it does. 



Bro. Puterbaugh also makes a suggestion that one thing the Alex- 
ander Mack Historical Society needs is a representative at each Dis- 
trict Meeting. It is one of the most practicable suggestions that has 



4 SCHWARZENAU 

come to us yet. Anyone willing to serve as District representative in 
his district — write us for literature and helps. 



The next issue of Schwarzenau is not to be a common one. (There 
is no such thing as a common issue of this journal.) But the next 
issue is to be extraordinary even for this uncommon journal. It is to 
be a Bibliographical Number. There has long been need for some- 
thing like a comprehensive bibliography of the field of Brethren his- 
tory and literature to cover the period from 1800. The Colonial 
Period has been well covered by the work of Hildeburn, Seiden- 
sticker, and the well-known work of J. S. Flory. We propose now 
to do the same for the period from 1800 to the present. This issue 
will be of particular value to libraries and to students everywhere. 
We can only print our usual number of copies and shall reserve an 
unusual number for certain schools. If you wish to procure this un- 
usual issue (which otherwise would have been published as a bound 
book, if it had not been for expense) see that your name is on the 
subscription list. Fair Warning I Last Warning ! 



i :\EXT ISSUE i 


1 1 

: — ^ Jamiiary^ 1942 ^= 1 


: BTBLIOGKAPHICAL i 


! :n' u yi B J, R \ 

r I 

1 




r»i 






DUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 

By Glen McFadden 
CHAPTER I 
THE SOWER PRESS 

There have been many chapters written on the Sower Press. No 
paper on the subject of Dunkers as Pubhshers, however, would 
be complete without beginning with the names of Christopher Sower 
and Son. There is no attempt to write a complete history here of 
these noble pioneers. We are concerned only with those more sig- 
nificant events which were related to their publishing interests. 

To trace the publishing interests of the Brethren we must go 
back and consider the beginnings of our brotherhood in Europe. 
There seems to be enough evidence, as quoted by Sharp, Brum- 
baugh, Thomas, and others, to make it more than mere supposition 
that the Brethren with others in Europe established a press about 
the year 1726 at Berleburg, near Schwarzenau, from which they 
published the famous Berleburg Bible. Brumbaugh quotes Abraham 
H. Cassel as believing that the Brethren in Europe purchased a 
larger press, and then sent the original one over to their brethren 
in Germantown.^ Most of the authorities agree that the press came 
from Europe, being sent for religious propaganda purposes. Per- 
haps Flory is right when he says, after considering the possible 
source of this press, "There is no historical evidence, however, to 
prove that this is so, and how Sower came by his press remains to 
this day an impenetrable mystery."^ It may be that further proof 
has been brought to light on this problem in the recent publication 
of the correspondence of Christopher Sower by the Germantown 



1. Brumbaugh: History of the Brethren, p. 354. 

2. Flory: Literary Activities of tlie Brethren, p. 52. 



6 SCHWARZENAU 

Historical Society, which has not been available to the writer in 
this study. This is one question upon which further light is needed. 

Christopher Sower received this printing press in 1738. Just as 
this generous spirit had built his house to provide also for a meeting- 
house as well as his dwelling, so too he incorporated his new print- 
ing press in his house for twelve years. The first issues from this 
press came out about June of 1738. Isaiah Thomas says that the 
press was first sent over and entrusted to Jacob Gaus, also a German 
Baptist, but that he did not possess the talent necessary to keep up 
the business. He further states that the press was then turned 
over to Christopher Sower, not necessarily because he was a printer, 
but because he was a good manager, a fact which was borne out by 
his immediately importing workmen from Europe who knew the 
trade well, thereby launching his enterprise on a profitable basis.^ 
Thomas emphasizes the ability of Sower by stating that he placed 
his business on such an efficient basis that he soon gained the ap- 
probation even of his opposers. 

Before proceeding further with the Sower Press, the question 
of Sower's affiliation with the Brethren should be decided, since 
some writers question his membership in the church. Thomas says: 
"He was religious in the temper of his mind, and quiet in his de- 
portment. Although inclining to Mennonism, he was called a 
Separatist; but, in fact, did not join any particular sect.""* Rumball- 
Petre, after paying tribute to his deeply religious motives in print- 
ing the first Bible, and in giving away copies freely to the poor, 
says: "We cannot even say that he printed it to please his church, 
for we have no evidence that he ever joined any church, sympathetic 
as he may have been toward the Church of the Brethren. Mystics 
like Saur are often too individualistic to join any group. "^ In 
favor of his membership in the Brethren fellowship, a fact which 
we of the same faith do not believe needs documentation, let a few 
facts be brought to our consideration. Bishop, one of the real 
sources on the importance of Sower in Colonial America, says this: 
"Saur was of that valuable class of German Protestants who at dif- 
ferent times since the arrival of Penn, have peopled Philadelphia, 
Germantown, Lancaster, and other parts of Pennsylvania, and 
to a firm attachment to their religion, have added an amount of 



3. Thomas, Isaiah : History of Printing in America, Vol. I, pp. 271, 273. 

4. Ibid., p. 273. 

5. Rumball-Petre: America's First Bibles, p. 16. 



BUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 7 

skill and Industry In many of the arts, not exceeded by any class In 
the country."^ Here Is pointed out two significant facts, his Protes- 
tant membership, and his strong attachment to his religion. Add 
to this the accepted fact that Christopher Sower, Jr., was a member 
of the church, and that when he took over the business of his father 
and carried on the same policies nothing was said concerning any 
change of religious principles, and It becomes almost conclusive 
that the son followed his father's beliefs and church affiliation. In 
spite of Thomas' statement that he favored Mennonism, and even 
though he did print quite a few books for the Mennonltes, we do 
know that he at one time withheld his name from the Imprint of 
a Mennonlte publication In 1744 because he did not approve of 
Its contents.'^ The main arguments for Sower's membership In the 
Dunker faith are well given by Brumbaugh. Among these argu- 
ments, some of which have been herein mentioned, there Is one 
which Is outstanding. This evidence Is In the form of a letter 
written by Sower himself, November 17, 1738, In which he points 
out that he was moved to go Into the printing business "by relating 
that the Dunkers, at a love feast prepared In his behalf, sought to 
bind his heart to the purpose of becoming a book printer; giving 
as their reason that the growth and development of the church 
depended upon having a German printer who would aid the church 
by disseminating through books and magazines and other publica- 
tions the literature of the church."'* Brumbaugh here points out a 
fact which Is well known to all of us, that Is, the principle of close 
communion which has been the practice of the Brethren: If Sower 
was a partaker of this love feast he was unquestionably a member 
of the church. 

The motives which dominated the founding of this first publish- 
ing enterprise have never been questioned. They were deep seated 
religious motives which were concerned with doing a much needed 
service for his fellow men. The letter above mentioned also gives 
Sower's words expressing a desire that his whole life should be 
"all consecrated to His service and the glorification of His name." 
This generous Christian spirit of the printer Is best pointed out by 
the free Bibles which he gave away and the Increase In circulation 
of his periodicals without any Increase In price. 



6. Bishop: A History of American Manufactures, from 1608-1860, p. 181. 

7. Seidensticker : First Century of German Printing, p. 28. 

8. Brumbaugh: Op. cit., pp. 350, 351. 



8 SCHWARZENAU 

It has been a source of interest and somewhat of a problem con- 
cerning the cheap price of the Sower Bibles and especially the 
generosity of the printer in giving away many copies to those who 
were poor — "to the poor and needy we have no price." Did this 
offer come out of the spirit of the printer, or was there some agree- 
ment? Thomas says concerning the press that was sent over to 
Jacob Gaus, and later became the property of Sower: "He (Gaus) 
was to have the use of, and emolument arising from the press, 
on condition that he should distribute a certain number of copies 
of each of the religious books he should print among the poor 
Germans."^ Rumball-Petre refers to the recently discovered cor- 
respondence between Christian Schiitz which suggests that the "no 
price" policy was characteristic of Schiitz also. "Writing to Dr. 
Luther about the boxes of books which he had sent to Saur for dis- 
tribution, Schiitz admits that it was done at great financial loss to 
himself."^" His policy was to charge a moderate rate to those who 
could pay, and then money so paid should provide for the free distri- 
bution of the books to the poor. It appears to the writer that this 
common understanding between these two generous spirits, Schiitz 
and Sower, may have been the basis of Thomas' misunderstanding 
in citing it as an agreement between those who sent the press and 
Jacob Gaus. It is quite probable that Schiitz in writing about the 
printing equipment which he had expected to get should mention 
the fact that such equipment would be used to carry on the good 
work which was close to the heart of both he and Sower. 

But this generosity on the part of Sower in giving away his 
literature and especially the Bibles, is most easily explained by look- 
ing into the mind of the man himself. We have his own words as 
to how he loaned to those in need, gave to those who could not 
repay, and never kept books against his debtors. It is interesting 
in these days of credit and installment buying to note this policy 
of Sower. "I am not a rich man, and do not yearn to be one, but 
I am regarded as rich because I always buy for cash, but I never 
loan anything except when I know that it will be repaid at the 
right time; or where a poor man has nothing and is helpless, there 
I forgive him in advance and keep no books. Therefore at all times 
my accounts are correct."^^ This is in line with the well-known 



9. Thomas : Op. cit., p. 271. 

10. Rumball-Petre : Op. cit., p. 18, 19. 

11. Rumball-Petre: Op. cit., p. 18. 



BUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 9 

fact that his enterprise was begun on the basis of religious service 
rather than for profit, a pohcy carried out through his life and then 
carried forward also by his son, Christopher Sower, Jr. 

Every pioneer has had to face and surmount many difficulties. 
Christopher Sower was no exception. The way in which he over- 
came them is a testimony to his fortitude of character and his dy- 
namic vision of service to his fellow men. A few of these obstacles 
will be mentioned in this brief sketch. It is difficult for us in this 
age of scientific method and mass production to see just what an 
immense undertaking it was to print a Bible in his day. Skilled labor 
was scarce, financial aid was hard to get, and type had to be import- 
ed until Sower was able to manufacture some for himself. He also 
manufactured his own printer's ink of high quality, and made some 
of his own paper when Benjamin Franklin "cornered the paper 
market" to cut off his competitor's supply. George Whitefield, the 
famous English evangelist, was friendly with Sower in Germantown 
and learning of his attempt to print a Bible and the difficulties of 
getting paper, "agreed to write to the London Charity Organiza- 
tion urging that it supply the paper needed for the edition of 1200 
copies of the Bible. "^~ Another difficulty was to know the correct 
number of Bibles to print. Sower therefore appealed to his custom- 
ers to help decide this question, promising to make a public reckon- 
ing of his costs and sales, for "I would rather serve my fellow men 
and God in this wise than lay aside a great earthly treasure for 
myself, or for my at present twenty-year-old son, who is of the 
same opinion as myself. "^^ Besides these material obstacles we 
have evidence that he also suffered that which every pioneer has 
to undergo, i. e., the opposition of some of his best friends, which 
was overcome, as already cited, by the efficient way in which he ran 
his business. The monumental work of Christopher Sower was the 
publication of the first Bible in an European language to be printed 
in America, completed in 1743. In view of the many obstacles to 
be overcome this accomplishment alone places him among the 
important pioneers of our nation. 

Christopher Sower died September 25, 1758 at the age of sixty- 
four years. According to his expressed desire, his son, who had 
worked with him and learned the trade well, took over the business 
of his father. He continued the high religious purposes in making 

12. Rumball-.Petre : Op. cit., p. 19. • " . ■„ 

13. Loc. cit. 



10 SCHWARZENAU 

his press a real agency for service. He says in the first issue of the 
newspaper published after his father's death that he finds "it laid 
upon me for God and for my neighbor's sake, to continue it" until 
he was able to get a helper who "could not be moved, either for 
money or flattery, to print anything that would not honor God and 
contribute to the country's welfare."" This high purpose is well 
shown in his sense of responsibility which caused him to title his 
newspaper in 1766, "True and Probable Happenings." He would 
fill an important need in our world today in the field of newspaper 
journalism. His newspaper was a worthy follower of his father's 
first permanent newspaper in the German language to be printed 
in America. Both father and son wielded a strong influence among 
the people of their generation, their newspapers having a very wide 
circulation. 

Christopher Sower, Jr., continued the work of his father until it 
was halted by the Revolutionary War in 1777. It is not necessary 
to recite for the reader the many accomplishments of his press, the 
most outstanding being the publication of the Bibles of 1763 and 
1776. An interesting chapter for our times could be written con- 
cerning his conscientious objection to war and his writings against 
it. He was a genuine patriot, but suffered as a martyr to his beliefs 
because he was misunderstood. He suffered personal persecution 
as well as financial loss. He might have retrieved a part of his loss 
from England, as did his son, Christopher Sower III, but it was 
against his religion to undertake litigation in the courts. His goods 
was sold at public auction, some of it being confiscated. Sower ask- 
ed for some of his personal belongings, but was given only his 
spectacles. Most readers are likely well acquainted with many of 
the misfortunes of the younger Sower at the time of the destruction 
of his press during the Battle of Germantown. It was commonly 
believed that practically all of the 1776 edition of Bibles was 
destroyed by the cavalry using the sheets for bedding for their 
horses. One significant fact, overlooked by most other writers, has 
been pointed out by Rumball-Petre, namely that the Battle of Ger- 
mantown was fought on October 4, 1777, and was therefore too 
late a date for the destruction of the greater part of an edition of 
3000 Bibles which were published in 1776, a whole year before the 
battle. ^-^ 



14. Brumbaugh: Op. cit., p. 399. 

15. Rumball-Petre: Op. cit., p. 55. 



BUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 11 

From Sower's own account, as well as from the accounts of all 
historians who have written on the subject, we know that the 
persecution which he endured was shameful and severe. One story 
of particular interest is told by Thomas, and is recited here, not 
because the writer believes it to be true, but because it does signify 
that a particular greatness attaches to those about whom such 
stories are told, especially in the generation that gives them birth. 
This graphic story follows: ^ 

One circumstance, rather extraordinary took place at this time, which has 
often been mentioned, and the fact attested, both by his frien;is and those 
who were then his political enemies. He was denuded at the camp by the 
soldiers, then arrayed in tattered regimentals and paraded. His pantaloons 
were seized by a soldier who put them on his own limbs. A short time after, 
this soldier was seized with agonizing pains in all parts of his body, and ex- 
claimed : "I can neither live nor die! I am in torment. Take off the old 
man's trowsers that I may die !" They were taken off, and the soldier pres- 
ently expired. The cause that produced the pains and sudden death of the 
soldier is not stated. By some of the friends of Sower, who esteemed him a 
saint, this incident was thought to be a judgment of God for the cruelty with 
which he had been treated. ^"^ 

To get a proper appraisal of the Sower press and its significance 
one must read some of the literature of the period. This brief article 
can give but a sample. One of the finest tributes is that of Brum- 
baugh. He points out that the books in the home, the family Bible, 
the almanac, the music, the religious magazine, the secular news- 
paper, the ink and stationery, the stove, the medicine, the clock, — all 
of them were the product of the Sower press and the Sower manu- 
factures. He points out the many other acts of service which were 
constantly coming from the Good Samaritan of Germantown and 
his son. If the reader has access to a copy of Bishop's "A History of 
American Manufactures" cited before, he will get "the feel" of the 
size and the significance of the Sower business. This one paragraph 
is typical : "The book manufactory of Christopher Sower the second, 
was for many years by far the most extensive in the British American 
Colonies. It employed several binderies, a paper-mill, and ink manu- 
factory, and a foundry for German and English types."" Truly we 
can be justly proud of the high purposes and the accomplishments 
of the founders of Dunker publishing. 



16. Thomas : History of Printing in America, Vol. I, p. 276. 

17. Bishop: Op. cit., Vol. I, p. 182. 



12 SCHWARZENAU 

The Heirs to the Sower Press 

Although Christopher Sower III, oldest son of Sower, Jr., had 
worked with his father and learned the trade, the Sower press was 
not continued under the family name. His son did not have the same 
spirit as the father but soon became involved in the war because he 
was an avowed Loyalist. The Sower press was continued for a time 
by Peter Leibert who purchased a part of the materials at the Sower 
sale. Leibert took in his son-in-law, Michael Billmeyer, a Lutheran, 
and this partnership lasted until 1787. Schreiber, who was a book- 
binder, was also a partner for a time. Leibert continued printing 
until 1797, and to him belongs the honor of having printed the first 
hymnbook for the Brethren. An added insight is given into the char- 
acter of Peter Leibert by this incident: A man by the name of John 
Dunlop had also purchased a part of the Sower business at the sale, 
and was selling some of the sheets of unbound Bibles for cartridge 
paper. Leibert, being of the same faith as Sower, went to Phila- 
delphia and "repurchased them" to keep them from being so dese- 
crated.^^ In 1791 Leibert's son, William, became a partner in the 
business. The Leibert press continued until about 1797, and "with 
the close of the Leibert press, the leadership of the Dunkers as pro- 
ducers and disseminators of literature came to an end."^^ 

The Ephrata Press 

No chapter on the beginnings of Dunker publishing would be com- 
plete without a word about the Ephrata press. Thomas says that 
not only the press at Germantown, but also the press at Ephrata was 
established by pious friends In Europe. He is the same authority for 
the fact that this press began work In Ephrata under the direction of 
Peter Miller about 1746. Miller wrote and published some books, 
the paper for which was also manufactured at Ephrata. His biggest 
work was a two volume publication of 1428 pages, on which he 
worked for a period of two years. During this time he slept only 
four hours daily, and lived the ascetic life of a monk, sleeping on a 
Vv'ooden bench and wooden block for a pillow. It is said that Peter 
Miller learned the printing art from the second Christopher Sower. 
He in turn taught a son, William Miller, the trade. Peter Miller 
was a very learned man, a graduate of Heidelberg University and 

18. Rumball-Petre: O/-. ci^., p. 57. 

19. Flory : Literary Activities of the Brethren, p. ix. 



BUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 13 

well equipped to make Ephrata "the second great centre of the Ger- 
man-American printing and bookmaking trade in America. It was 
equalled by none and surpassed only by the Sower press at German- 
town."2o 

CHAPTER II 

THE REVIVAL OF DUNKER PRINTING 

The one individual who stands foremost In the revival of print- 
ing following the "slump" of half a century Is unquestionably Elder 
Henry Kurtz. After two former attempts to publish a paper In 
1833 and 1836, he finally launched the first copy of what was to be- 
come the parent of the permanent church paper. This first copy of 
the paper called "The Gospel Visitor" Is dated i\pril 1, 1851, and 
was a monthly. It was a difficult job to launch this "new" enterprise 
among the none-too-receptive Brethren. The new book, "Meet 
Henry Kurtz" by H. A. Brandt, to be referred to later, will help the 
reader to re-live the years through which Henry Kurtz had to work 
on his new venture. Some of his difficulties are also evident In the 
minutes of Annual Meeting, showing that Annual Meeting from 
1851 to 1853, "progressed" from "not forbidding Bro. Henry Kurtz 
to go on with the paper for one year," to the recognition that inas- 
much as "the Visitor is a private undertaking of its editor, we unan- 
imously conclude that this meeting should not any further Interfere 
with It."-^ Surely this was anything but encouragement and we can 
readily understand why Henry Kurtz wrote in 1853 after returning 
from the Yearly Meeting: "The Yearly Meeting has again declared 
that It Is none of Its business to Interfere with the private affairs of 
members, and the Gospel Visitor may continue on his course, If not 
rejoicing, at least unmolested, yet with fear and trembling."-^ Only 
because Elder Kurtz was a man who "possessed the training, view- 
point and ability which enabled him to determine the outlook of a 
denomination" and because "he had the patience, tact and skills re- 
quired to bring a vision to reality when others were content with 
things as they were" did he succeed in the face of such lack of en- 
couragement.^'^ His significance lies in this spirit which brought about 
the revival of printing in our brotherhood. He, too, overcame many 

20. Brumbaugh : Op. cit., p. 456. 

21. Classified Minutes of Annual Conference, p. 323. 

22. Brandt, H. A. : Meet Henry Kurtz, p. 109. 

23. Ibid., p. 10. 



14 SCHWARZENAU 

obstacles, but with determination and untiring energy, and working 
with simple equipment In the small sprlnghouse near Poland, Ohio, 
he was finally successful In placing the first permanent church paper 
on a solid basis. In his declining years he also printed and published 
the Brethren Encyclopedia. Like the pioneer publisher of the Breth- 
ren, he too taught his sons the trade, but they did not carry through 
the vocation of their father. Space does not permit the credit that 
Elder Kurtz deserves in such a paper. He ranks high In any rating 
of Dunker publishers. 

■ Among the several men associated with the Gospel Visitor was 
one who became famous as an editor of our church papers. This man 
was Elder James Quinter, who came into the office of the Gospel 
Visitor In 1856 as assistant editor. Quinter not only lived up to the 
high expectations of the editor of the Visitor, but continued with the 
church paper through several mergers, staying in the editorial chair 
until the end of his life. "Probably no man among us ever did more 
for the Church of the Brethren than did Bro. Quinter" is the high 
tribute paid him In the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Brethren Pub- 
lishing Interests Number of the Gospel Messenger for November 
25, 191 1. He died while kneeling in prayer on the Annual Meeting 
platform at North Manchester, Indiana, in 1888, 

Another product of the Kurtz office was the person of Henry R. 
Holsinger who was one of the most brilliant minds among the Breth- 
ren. Holsinger was brought Into the Visitor office because among 
his other high qualifications he was also able to speak and read the 
German language. He came to the Visitor in the fall of 1856, but 
remained only long enough to learn the art of printing from his good 
teacher. Brother Holsinger has a brilliant record among the Breth- 
ren, marred only by the fact that he did not possess the patience that 
is so necessary to keep men of far vision from breaking with the 
present. Believing that the Visitor should be a weekly instead of a 
monthly, and not willing to wait until Kurtz agreed to make the 
change, he left the Visitor office and In 1864 began publishing the 
Christian Family Companion, the first weekly paper among the 
Brethren. He unwisely made this paper a sort of forum which would 
receive and publish debatable material on the policies of the church. 
This editorial policy was certain to bring him Into conflict with the 
church in a day when publishing was still In question among many 
of the members. The result of this policy Is borne out In the Annual 
Meeting Minutes of these years. The Minutes of 1873 required 



BUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 15 

the editor of the paper, with some others, to acknowledge their 
mistakes and to be more guarded in the future in the publishing of 
articles that differed with the policies of the church. In 1870 Hol- 
singer had also begun a small paper called "Pious Youth" which was 
soon discontinued for want of patronage. In 1873 he sold the Chris- 
tian Family Companion to Elder James Quinter and it was merged 
with the Gospel Visitor. 

Bro. J. W. Beer should also receive recognition as an associate 
on the Christian Family Companion. He was a man of outstanding 
ability as a writer. He went with the Progressive Brethren, as did 
Elder Holsinger, at the time of the tragic schism. Brother Hol- 
singer took with him his outstanding talent and became the leader 
of the Progressive Brethren, editing their official paper, the Pro- 
gressive Christian, which he began about 1878. Although changed 
in name the paper is still the organ of this branch of our brotherhood. 

Two other men of note were also associated with Holsinger in 
his editorial and publishing work. These were Howard Miller and 
S. H. Bashor. Howard Miller was at one time the owner of the 
paper, but later turned it back to Holsinger, at which time Brother 
Bashor was taken in as associate editor. 

James A. Sell was also associated with Holsinger at one time dur- 
ing 1866. He was also an author of several well-received works, one 
of which was a volume of original poems. His name deserves men- 
tion in any listing of Dunker publishers. 

After the success of Kurtz's weekly Companion, another weekly 
was inaugurated by Brethren Henry B. and John B. Brumbaugh, 
with Elder George Brumbaugh as associate editor. This paper was 
called the Pilgrim, and appeared for the first time on January 1, 
1870. The paper was published in the East, most of the time at 
Huntingdon, Pa. The editors felt the need of a liberal paper, yet 
the ideas were presented in such a way that no antagonism was 
aroused among its readers. The Brumbaugh brothers have had an 
important place in the publication of our church papers. Elder H. 
B. Brumbaugh also was an author and wrote a little book called 
"Onesimus" which had a wide circulation. Both of them furnished 
writings for our church papers for many years and were interested 
in the educational progress of the church, the founding of Juniata 
College being largely credited to them. 

The next publication of the Brethren, around which there is a 
cluster of Dunker publishers, was the Brethren at Work. Brother 



16 SCHWARZENAU 

J. T. Myers of Germantown had been publishing the Brethren's 
Messenger for a short time, and not proving successful in the new 
venture, decided to move to Lanark, Illinois, and then publish two 
papers instead of one, one in English and the other in German. The 
German paper was to be known as Der Bruderbote, and the English 
paper, the Brethren at Work. Both of these were to be edited and 
published by J. H. Moore, J. T. Myers, M. M. Eshelman, with 
R. H. Miller, J. W. Stein, Daniel Vaniman, and Mattie A. Lear as 
associates.^"^ This paper became the weekly of the West, making 
two prominent church weeklies, the other being the above-mentioned 
Pilgrim, which had become combined with the Primitive Christian. 
These two weeklies finally merged In June 1883 into our well-known 
Gospel Messenger, which became the property of the church in 1897. 

Other names associated with the Brethren at Work were Joseph 
Amick and D. L. Miller, the latter standing out as one of the best 
Informed editors of our publications. He traveled much, having been 
abroad seven times, five of which were spent In the Holy Land, and 
two around the world. Brother L. A. Plate also worked In the office 
of the Pilgrim, later in the printing department of the Brethren at 
Work, and In his last years served in the work of publishing the Gos- 
pel Messenger. According to Howard Miller, Brethren S. J. Har- 
rison and L. M. Eby were partners of Eshelman in 1879. All of 
these served well in these responsibilities of helping In the publica- 
tion of our church papers. Elder J. H. Moore is one who deserves 
some special attention. He was a self-educated man, but very effi- 
cient. He served as editor of both the Brethren at Work and the 
Gospel Messenger, having served in these offices a total of over 
thirty years. He was succeeded In this office by the present editor. 
Brother Edward Frantz, who with the associate editor. Brother 
H. A. Brandt, is carrying on the high Dunker Ideals In our church 
paper. 

This brief sketch of the evolution of our church paper has shown 
the high purposes which dominated those who had the vision and 
the patience to bring to fruition an official church-owned paper. The 
Gospel Messenger is a good embodiment of the ideals which these 
pioneers envisioned for the church. 

In tracing the chief publications others have been overlooked. 
These others will be enumerated in order to get the names associated 

24. Gospel Messenger article, April 5, 1941, by D. L. Miller. 



DUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 17 

with them — including others who were interested in the pubhshing 
of a paper for the church, but who were not so fortunate to meet 
with the success of those already mentioned. No attempt is made 
to give a complete list, nor any of the details concerning these papers, 
since a much fuller treatment may be found in other sources avail- 
able to the reader. The Bicentennial Addresses, chapter on Pub- 
lications, Elgin S. Moyer's "History of Missions," and Galen 
Ogden's B.D. Thesis have been helpful in making this list of pub- 
lications. The publications of the brotherhood follow, together with 
the date of publication, and the names of those responsible for pub- 
lishing. 

THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE BROTHERHOOD 

1851 — The Gospel Visitor. Henry Kurtz and his son, H. J. Kurtz; James 
Quinter ; Henry R. Holsinger. 

1864 — Tlie Christian Family Companion. li. R. Holsinger; James Quinter; 
J. W. Beer; James A. Sell ; Howard Miller; S. H. Bashor. 

1870 — The Pilgrim. H. B. and J. B. Brumbaugh; George Brumbaugh. 

1870— T/je Pious Youth. H. R. Holsinger. 

\^7Q—The Vindicator. Samuel Kinsey to 1883 ; Joseph I. Cover, 1883-1889 ; 
Henry and John Garber, 1889-1894; and J. M. Kimmel to the pres- 
ent time. This is the official paper of the Old Order Brethren. 

1873 — The Gospel Trumpet. John Flory and Benjamin Funk. 

1873 — The Christian Family Companion and Gospel Visitor. James Quinter. 

1876 — The Young Disciple. H. B. and J. B. Brumbaugh. 

\d>76—The Brethren's Messenger. J. T. Myers. 

m76—The Brethren at Work. J. H. Moore ; J. T. Myers ; M. M. Eshelman, 
and associate editors as named before. 

1876 — Dcr Bruderbote. Brethren at Work staff were publishers. 

1878 — Brethren's Advocate. D. H. Fahrney. 

1878 — The Progressive Christian. H. R. Holsinger; J. W. Beer; Howard 
Miller revived the paper in 1880; was called the Brethren Evangelist 
in 1883 when it became the official paper of the Progressive Brethren. 

1^79— The Gospel Preacher. S. Z. Sharp; S. H. Bashor; J. H. Worst; 
united with the Progressive Christian to become the Brethren Evan- 
gelist. 

1879 — Our Sunday School. S. Z. Sharp; David Emmert ; Sister Libbie 
Leslie. 
— The Youth's Advance. (Date uncertain). M. M. Eshelman. Merged 
with Our Sunday School in 1882. 

1879 — The Brethren's Quarterly. S. Z. Sharp; L. Huber ; James M. Neff ; 
Lewis W. Teeter; I. B. Trout. 

1882 — The Family Companion. J. H. Moore. Short duration. 

— The Deacon. (Date uncertain). P. H. Beaver. Short duration. 

1883 — The Gospel Messenger. James Quinter; H. B. Brumbaugh; D. L. 
Miller; J. H. Moore; Edward Frantz. 

1885 — Golden Dazim. Brumbaugh brothers and Wealthy A, Clarke. 



18 SCHWARZENAU 

1885 — TJie School and Home. J. G. Royer and Son. 

1888 — Educator and Companion. J. M. Snyder. 

189-1 — The Missionary Visitor. Mt Morris, 111. 

1895— (Vol. IV, No. 3, July 1895). The Home Helper. Monthly. "For the 

Instruction and Entertainment of the Home." James M. Neff, Edi- 
tor and Publisher, ]\It. Morris, 111. 
1897 — Missionary Advocate. Sisters' Aid Society of Frederick City, 

Maryland. Sister R. L. Rinehart, president and editor. Published 

one year. 
1898^T//t' Inglenook. Brethren Publishing House. 
\%99— The Land Mark. Howard Miller and John E. Mohler. 
1899 — The Pilot. Brethren Publishing House, Grant ]\Iahan, editor. Called 

Inglenook in 1900 with Howard Miller, editor. 
\900-r-The Petitioner. James M. Neff. Short duration. 
1922 — The Bible Monitor. B. E. Kesler. Became the official paper of the 

Dunkard Brethren in 1926 and is published by them to the present 

time. 
192S— Florida Live Wires. J. H. Morris. 1925 to 1931. 
1939 — The Brethren Missionary Herald. Louis S. Bauman ; Alva J. Mc- 

Clain ; R. Paul Miller ; Mrs. A. B. Kidder. 
1939 — Schzvarccnau. Published by the Alexander Mack Historical Society, 

Floyd E. Mallott, editor. 
— The Children's Paper. (Date not available; but early) H. J. Kurtz, 

Dayton, Ohio. 
— The Home AHrror. John S. Flory. 
— The IVestern Herald. About 1880. A. W. Vaniman. Devoted to 

health, science, farming, morals, and matters of general interest. 



186-^ CHRIST I AM FAn iLY 
con PAN ION \ 

j^^^X CHRIST ! AH FAMILY COHPANION 
/v*nO(jOsV?e:u 

1651, thlgo5pe:lvisitop /^'^'"^^'^^X ppimitiwf christian 

I670 / 



the: PILOrRlKl 

\ CHURCH OWrfEO 

JUNE 1863 \^O^P^L 1897 I8 9_9. 

riESSErSGLR MOVED TO tun H 



BRETHRtfH AT WORK 




BRETHREri'6 
ME5e)£NGER_y5tpr. |676 



1876 

_DER BRUDERBOTE. 
~T&90 



''FAHILY TRLL'' OF THE GOSP.LinESSEMGLR p-^^^-n^^u^ 



BUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 19 

MISCELLANEOUS PUBLISHERS 

There are a few publishers who pubHshed as individuals and were 
therefore not included in the enumeration of those who were asso- 
ciated with the church periodicals. Some of the names of our own 
time were obtained through the use of a questionnaire, and some few 
names were obtained from reliable sources, but no information con- 
cerning the work of the individual was available at the time of this 
writing. Those whom we have good reason to believe should be in- 
cluded in the list of Dunker publishers follow. 

" 'A Choice Selection of Hymns for the Glory of Christ' is the 
title of a volume published in 1814 at Mathetchy, Pa., by Abraham 
Krupp, who was a member of the Brethren Church.""^ This is all 
that we know about Brother Krupp as a publisher. 

Peter Nead is one of the earliest of the authors of books in our 
church, and is listed here as a publisher as well as an author because 
he undertook the publication of his own books, a common practice in 
earlier times. His first book, "Primitive Christianity," was published 
in 1833. His "Theology" is also well known. 

Isaac Price, an elder in the church, "was favored with a good edu- 
cation which he employed successfully in teaching and also in publish- 
ing a paper. ""*^ This paper was a newspaper, the "Lafayette Au- 
rora," published at Pottstown, Pa., in 1825. Brother Price was 
joint-editor and joint-proprietor."^ 

Coming down to our own day we note the work of Brother 
William S. Livengood, Meyersdale, Pa., as a newspaper publish- 
er, using as his motto: "Not a Mere Newspaper — A Community 
Service." This sounds as if the spirit of Christopher Sower still 
lives. His daughter, Mrs. Frances L. Imler, is business partner in 
the publication of this paper which is called the Meyersdale Re- 
publican. According to the publisher he began actual publication 
work by himself at the age of twenty-five, and has just passed his 
eightieth birthday, March 22, 1941. He has worked on no less 
than a dozen newspapers from coast to coast and from north to 
south, and expects to continue in his work until "the Grim Reaper 
gives me the '30' signal." Two of Brother Livengood's younger 
brothers were helped into the publishing business by their father, 



25. Falkenstein: History of the German Baptist Brethren, p. 519. 

26. Sharp : Educational History of the Brethren, p. 42. 

27. Cable and Sanger : Educational Blue Book, p. 554. 



20 SCHWARZENAU 

and are likely members of the same church, although this Informa- 
tion Is not available at present. 

Brother Walter Wallick, of Dayton, Ohio, who died in 1935,^ 
was also a publisher, having been for twenty-five years engaged in 
the business and having served as associate editor of "The Inland 
Printer." His early death at the age of forty-one likely cut short 
a future In his chosen vocation. 

Brother John M. Fogelsanger, who before his death in 1936, 
lived at Germantown, Pa., was the publisher of a monthly magazine 
called "New Ideals." "For a period of from ten to twenty years the 
circulation of this magazine was very large, carrying with it a con- 
siderable mail-order business. I cannot give the exact circulation, 
but I would judge that it was about 100,000, or perhaps more."^^ 
Brother Fogelsanger spent over a quarter of a century in the pub- 
lishing business. He was also a gardener of some note. 

Brother Edgar Rothrock, of Pomona, Cal., In addition to being 
an active pastor In the church, has done some publishing of work 
which he has also edited and written, especially booklets for the 
comforting of the sorrowful. Brother Rothrock also gives the 
Information that his grandfather, "Philip Rothrock, the original 
emigrant, printed colonial currency for the Continental Congress 
about 1779." He also names a "Mr. Coates in Los Angeles who 
publishes the Peace Digest" as another publisher who is a member 
of the church. 

In Louisville, Ohio, 1223 East Main Street, the writer recently 
met Brother Louis P. Clapper, a member of the Progressive Breth- 
ren, who has been a publisher for over thirty-five years. He is both 
the editor and the publisher of "The Louisville Herald," one of 
those smaller, but influential community newspapers, to which every 
home turns for Its local news. 

Brother Will Judy, president of the Judy Publishing Company, 
3323 Michigan Boulevard, Chicago, finishes the list of our present 
day publishers, as far as they are known to the writer. His com- 
pany publishes books for bookstores and libraries, but the president, 
Mr. Judy, is better known as editor of the magazine "Dog World." 
This magazine, according to the editor, "has a paid ABC circula- 
tion of 19,915 monthly, and leads twenty-one other American dog 
publications In advertising and circulation. It employs a staff of 

28. From Sister Ross D. Murphy, a sister of Bro. Fogelsanger. 







BUNKERS AS PUBLISHERS 21 

nineteen persons. The company owns its own modern four-story 
building at the address given." Brother Judy has also written in 
other fields, a book of essays called "Men and Things" and "A 
Soldier's Diary." He gave the name of Nile C. Smith, 415 West 
Chicago Avenue, Chicago, who "for years issued a very famous 
work, the North American Almanac, a bound book which sold ap- 
proximately 125,000 copies a year. He is a member of the Church 
of the Brethren." 

There are perhaps over two dozen others who would be called 
publishers by the technical definition of the word, such as those who 
have written books, or one book, and published it themselves. Some 
of these, Otho Winger, H. K. Ober, Perry L. Rohrer, and others, 
are far better known for other church activities than they are as pub- 
lishers, so will not be listed here. 

CHAPTER III 
PUBLISHERS AND PROGRESS 

It is not difficult to imagine what the Church of the Brethren 
would be today if it had not been for the revival of the publishing 
interests. We look back in admiration to the Sower Press. We look 
with a certain dismay at the period following its destruction. What 
has the press done for our church? That is difficult to say exactly. 
It may be result as much as it is a cause, as Moyer suggests: "Mis- 
sions, education, and the press have had a close interrelationship. 
One could hardly have arisen without the others.""^ Dove also 
says that the "cultural patterns of the Brethren have undergone 
remarkable liberalization and the church press is a very significant 
factor in bringing about the change."^*' 

It may be true that the church would have developed her mis- 
sionary spirit without the press, but it would have been much slow- 
er. It is difficult to see how any organization as widespread as our 
church membership at present could well retain its unity and spirit 
and action without the printed page which is read weekly in most 
of our homes. 

The many publications which were begun in the years 1850 to 
1880 were a symptom as well as an expression of the restless spirit 
among the leaders of the Brethren. A similar change was coming 



29. Moyer: Missions in the Church of the Brethren, p. 62. 

30. Dove : Cultural Changes in the Church of the Brethren, p. 126. 



22 SCHWARZENAU 

over all of America, and the church, if it was to grow, had to adapt 
itself to the new culture. H. C. Early estimated that the member- 
ship of the church in 1851 was not over 14,000. He points out the 
approval of Sunday schools, the approval of missions, and the 
opening of colleges, all of them following the revival of the press 
in the church. He concludes: "The revival of the publishing 
business marks an epoch in the history of the Church of the Brethren 
and following this, there has been the most rapid growth and ex- 
pansion of all her great interests. "^^ There were no doubt other 
factors responsible for this growth, but the proper credit is given 
the press. 

With the competition eliminated through our church-owned Gos- 
pel Messenger there should continue to be a progressive and unified 
expression of the ideals of the church. There is great need today 
that these ideals should pervade our communities and the world, 
just as the Sower Press was so influential in its day. 

Most permanent institutions have had a literature. Not only 
have they been literature-producing, but also literature-guided. This 
has been especially true with Christianity, and is certainly a big 
factor in its growing strength. Therefore we need to be seriously 
concerned with the kind of literature published and circulated by 
the church, as well as the amount of published materials. A heavy 
responsibility for the future permanence and further growth of 
the church rests upon those who publish our reading diet. May the 
ideals of our pioneer Dunker publishers not be lost in the confusion 
of our times 1 



31. Gospel Messenger article, November 25, 1911. 



FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 

STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT 

FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS 

By William M. Beahm 

WILLIAM M. BEAHM, now on the Bethany faculty, was active in the campus 
work of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, from the time he 
became a member in 1916. He participated in the re-organization of the United Student 
Volunteers of the Church of the Brethren in 1919 and served as their traveling secretary 
in 1922-23. In 1923-24 he traveled in the Southwestern and Pacific states for the Student 
Volunteer Movement, after which he sailed for Africa where thirteen years were 
spent in missionary service. His paper in this issue is the result of his special study of 
the Student Volunteer Movement and is felt to be of interest to our readers for two 
reasons. First, because the enthusiastic students who opened and carried on our 
missions in India, China, and Africa, were nearly all Student Volunteers and received 
their zeal from this Movement. Secondly, because this Movement had much to do 
with the rise of the Volunteer organization of our own church. 

It is the purpose of this study to show that the rise of the Student 
Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions was a phenomenon based 
upon certain dominant rehgious and social forces of the late nine- 
teenth century. These forces were given effective unity and expres- 
sion by the leaders of the S. V. M. through their program and 
ideology. The program included the dissemination of missionary 
information among students, the securing of personal commitment 
to foreign missions as a life work, and the inducing of these "Student 
Volunteers" to take permanent service under the foreign mission 
boards and societies of the Protestant Churches. The Movement^ 
provided a unifying and expansive objective in its watchword, "The 
Evangelization of the World in this Generation." From a position 
of early criticism and misgiving, this watchword came to be the tacit 
aim of the entire Protestant missionary enterprise. This great task 
was laid upon the students in schools of higher learning in the direct 
form of a personal challenge to sign the Movement's declaration 
card, "It is my purpose, if God permit, to become a foreign mission- 
ary." This signature was regarded in the highly religious terms of 
being the response to the call of God. Every student was expected 
to face this issue and respond to it positively, or else to be able to 
show that God had given a definite call elsewhere. 

As a result of this program and these ideological emphases, the 
Movement enrolled, between 1886 and 1936, just under 50,000 
Student Volunteers, of which number over 13,000 actually sailed to 



1. The terms "S. V. M." or "Movement" will be used equivalently. The term 
"student Christian movement" will be used as a general name for all similar organiza- 
tions taken as a whole. 



24 SCHWARZENAU 

the foreign fields of missionary service. These workers served either 
under the Church boards or under some form of interdenominational 
agency related to the churches. During this fifty year period approx- 
imately half of the missionaries sent out were Student Volunteers. 
The peak year was in 1908 when two thirds of the missionaries ap- 
pointed were members of the Movement. 

The Movement increased in influence until after the world war 
when it began a rapid decline. By 1940 it had almost ceased to be a 
decisive factor either in student religious life or in the promotion of 
the missionary program of the churches. It will appear from this 
study that this decline can be traced largely to the radical shift or 
decline of those religious and social forces upon which the Move- 
ment was originally based. 

Several other studies have recently been made, which have dealt 
with those aspects of the Movement's history and development re- 
lating to the other parts of the student Christian movement.^ As 
compared with them, the contribution of the present study lies in the 
following areas: It centers its concern not in the general student 
Christian movement — the early voluntary student religious societies, 
the student Y. M. C. A., the student Y. W. C. A., and related or- 
ganizations — but in the specific movement and organization known 
as the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions.^ This 
Movement is dealt with in the light of an exhaustive examination 
of all the records available and brings it to the year 1940, when Its 
almost complete decline can be regarded as the end of an era. The 
subject is treated not merely in terms of the historic sequence of 
events but also with an attempt to Interpret the dynamic aspects of 
its development. This study deals with the S. V. M. not merely as 
an aspect of the general student Christian movement, but with 
special reference to the total missionary program of the churches. 
This missionary program is seen to have been a great prior move- 
ment whose expanding program and characteristic ideology were in- 
troduced into the nascent student Christian movement. This was 
true In many ways and was effected by various men. Its most char- 



2. Clarence P. Shedd, Two Centuries of Student Christian Movements, Associa- 
tion Press, New York, 1934. This was originally the substance of a Ph.D. dissertation, 
Yale University, 1932. 

• 3. William H. Morgan, Student Religion During Fifty Years, Association Press, 
New York, 1935. This was originally the substance of a Ph.D. dissertation at Columbia 
University. 



STUDENT VOLUNTEER 25 

acteristic form was in the S. V. M., and the most specific agent was 
Robert P. Wilder, the founder of the S. V. M. 

Significant Characteristics of the Late 
Nineteenth Century 

The late nineteenth century was marked by many characteristics 
which favored the rise of the S. V. M. It was a period of expansion, 
particularly of the Protestant nations and under the dominance of 
Britain. There was increasing rapprochement between Britain and 
America which developed a sense of common destiny for the Anglo- 
Saxon peoples. This political expansion was correlated with rapid 
commercial expansion and facilitated by the development of a world- 
wide system of travel and communication. By the end of the century 
this expansion of the west was matched by a similar interest of the 
orient in the civilization of the west. While it would be unfair to 
say that nineteenth century missions were merely the religious phase 
of this political and economic expansion, yet this unifying of the 
world's political and economic structure greatly facilitated the ex- 
pansion of Christianity during this period. 

American life was marked by the closing of the frontier and the 
turning of interest toward the growing cities and the world horizon. 
The schools of the middle west in particular developed rapidly and 
this area changed from being an object of eastern missionary effort, 
to becoming a source of outgoing missionary interest. There was a 
great increase of wealth among American Protestants as the cities 
grew and the country was developed. This gave rise to many mer- 
chant princes who, as laymen, became increasingly prominent in the 
life of the churches. 

Traditional revivalism showed new vitality and improved quality, 
as exemplified in the amazing career of Dwight L. Moody. Frontier 
excesses were replaced by a quieter and more widespread evangelism 
centering in the cities and enlisting the interest of many laymen whose 
religious activities found characteristic expression in the Young 
Men's Christian Association. Moody's work issued in a large influx 
of new members into the churches. But it went further and took the 
form of conferences for the deepening of the spiritual life. This 
latter movement emphasized the authority of the Scriptures, the 
gift of the Holy Spirit, and the dedication of life to religious work. 



26 SCHWARZENAU 

The Maturing of the Foreign Missionary Movement 

Foreign missions began in America twenty years later than in Eng- 
land. They were inaugurated here as the result of a band of students 
at Williams College who, led by Samuel J. Mills, founded in 1 806-08 
the student "Society of Brethren." This original "Haystack Band" 
dedicated their lives "to effect in the persons of its members a mis- 
sion or missions to the heathen." As a result of their insistent desire 
to become foreign missionaries, there was organized In 1810 the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. This 
board was followed by the organization of others so that by 1888, 
fifty-eight American societies sent delegates to the Centenary Con- 
ference in London. A third of these boards or societies were women's 
organizations. The American Board itself Increased in strength. 
Its income for 1811 was $999.52 but by 1884 it had increased to 
$588,353.51. By that time foreign missions could point to success- 
ful results in India, China, Africa, and the South Sea Islands. More- 
over new openings were beckoning in new and Inland areas and these 
were regarded as providential calls to missionary expansion. This 
led by 1885 to an ambitious and concerted plan to co-ordinate all 
Protestant missionary endeavor so as to proclaim the gospel mes- 
sage to every person in the whole world.^ 

The Emergence of The Student Christian Movement 

It had been hoped that the "Haystack Band" would grow into an 
organized intercollegiate movement. It did flourish at Andover 
Seminary both as a "Society of Inquiry" and as a smaller society of 
men pledged to become missionaries. Similar societies did spring up 
in several schools but conditions were not yet ripe for an organized 
movement to develop. It was In 1877 that the growing Y. M. C. A. 
movement had taken sufficient hold of student life to organize its 
Intercollegiate department. Luther D. WIshard became the first 
college secretary and was Instrumental in developing a flourishing 
movement with strong emphasis on Bible study, evangelism, and 
missions. In close connection with this work the college department 
of the Y. W. C. A. was organized in 1886. A more specifically mis- 
sionary emphasis characterized the American Inter-seminary Mis- 
sionary Alliance which was organized In 1880 among the theological 



4. The Missionary Review, September 1885, see pp. 369-370, "A Plan to Evangelize 
the World", by Arthur T. Pierson. 



STUDENT VOLUNTEER 27 

schools. Their annual conventions were strongly influential in crys- 
tallizing missionary thought and in laying the missionary obligation 
upon students. This Alliance was limited to graduate students but 
furnished leadership for the S. V. M. when the latter awakened the 
missionary interest of the undergraduate world. The S. V. M. was 
to become the missionary aspect of the general and nascent student 
Christian movement. To the general interest in evangelism, mis- 
sions, Bible study, and consecration, the S. V. M. added its own 
peculiar emphases. This addition included the strong emphasis 
upon foreign as against home missions, the interpretation of conse- 
cration in terms of definite volunteering for foreign missions, and the 
formulation of a watchword which served as a unifying objective 
for the student movement and the church. This slogan was world 
wide in its scope but was so interpreted as to intensify the foreign 
missionary obligation. 

The Mount Hermon Conference of 1886 

Moody had begun to do work among students in connection with 
his other evangelistic campaigns. In Britain, especially at Oxford 
and Cambridge, he was instrumental in leading numbers of capable 
and favored students into definitely religious work. Seven of these 
from Cambridge were influenced by Hudson Taylor to go to China 
in 1885 under the China Inland Mission. This story of the "Cam- 
bridge Seven" was told in American colleges during the year 1885-86 
by J. E. K. Studd. He was a brother of a leading member of the 
"Seven" and came to America as a guest of Mr. Moody. While 
Studd was here Moody met also with Luther Wishard and C. K. 
Ober of the intercollegiate department of the Y. M. C. A. Out of 
this meeting grew Moody's agreement to invite students from all the 
schools to attend a Summer Conference for Bible Study. It was to 
meet July 1-31, 1886 at Mount Hermon, Massachusetts, at Moody's 
school for boys, and under his leadership. It was attended by 251 
delegates from eighty-eight schools in twenty-two states and Canada. 
Among these delegates was John R. Mott, a Cornell sophomore 
from Iowa, who had been led into a deep religious consecration the 
previous winter by Studd, and who was destined to become the out- 
standing leader of missionary interests both in the student move- 
ments and in the churches across the world. Another delegate was 
Robert P. Wilder, a Princeton senior, born in India of eager mission- 
ary parents, and now burning with zeal for the inauguration of a 



28 SCHWARZENAU 

movement which would lead a thousand students to become mission- 
aries. 

The program was somewhat informal but specifically interested in 
Bible study and such methods of Christian work as are adapted to 
college life. No definite place was given to any missionary presenta- 
tion, although both Wishard and Ober were eager for the Y. M. 
C. A. to promote a flourishing missionary movement. It was Wilder 
who introduced the strong missionary note into the Conference which 
issued in one hundred volunteers. 

Wilder's father, Royal Gould Wilder, had served for thirty years 
in India as a Congregational, then an independent, and finally as a 
Presbyterian, missionary. His career was ended there in 1875 when 
his precarious health and desire to educate his children led him to 
settle in Princeton, New Jersey. His enthusiastic missionary passion 
and his independent missionary views were given expression in The 
Missionary Review, which he founded in 1878 and edited until his 
death ten years later. He criticized the Boards for their inefficient 
administration and urged an immediate doubling of all missionary 
forces. It was in this journal that the plan was first discussed for the 
evangelization of the world in the current generation. The plan was 
urged by such ardent pre-millennialists as Arthur T. Pierson and 
Royal Wilder himself. Not only did Royal Wilder urge this duty 
upon the churches, but he was eager for a movement to emerge 
among students to furnish the personnel for this great task. He had 
been a member of the "Brethren" at Andover Seminary. And he had 
induced both Grace and Robert to become passionately eager to re- 
turn to India as missionaries. When Robert and others from Prince- 
ton attended the Alliance convention at Hartford in 1883 they con- 
ceived the plan for organizing a pledged society in their school. In 
the Wilder home they met and formed the Princeton College Foreign 
Missionary Society whose members signed the covenant father 
Wilder helped them to formulate: "We, the undersigned, declare 
ourselves willing and desirous, God permitting, to go to the Unevan- 
gelized portions of the world." This Society was limited to such 
covenanted members and its sole emphasis was upon foreign missions. 
Wilder went from Princeton to Mount Hermon in 1886 with a 
number of these comrades and with a mandate from his sister to 
start a movement of 100 Volunteers. The whole Wilder family was 
intensely confident in the power of prayer and followed Robert's 



STUDENT VOLUNTEER 29 

work with earnestness. So when Robert went to Mount Hermon, he 
went with definite aims and resources for spreading the Princeton 
plan to other colleges and raising up an army of Volunteers who 
would help to fulfill his father's expectation for the speedy evangeli- 
zation of the world. 

Robert worked in informal ways at first. He made personal con- 
tacts and called informal prayer groups and urged delegates to sign 
the Princeton declaration. Later he arranged for missionary pres- 
entations to be made in open meetings which aroused intense inter- 
est. These were followed up by the work of the growing band of 
Volunteers until, on the last morning, they secured their hundredth 
member. The dominant impression left on the whole delegate body 
was that God had worked in their midst and had done far more in 
answer to prayer than any of them could have accomplished. Ac- 
cordingly this first intercollegiate Bible study conference became 
famous for the emergence of this new missionary movement which 
was to stir the student and church life of Protestant Christendom. 

The Movement in The Colleges 

It was immediately felt that the colleges should be challenged by 
the "Story of Mt. Hermon" as they had been earlier by the "Story 
of the Cambridge Seven." Wilder, Mott, and two others were 
chosen to spend the next year travelling in the colleges. A New 
York business man, who was present and felt this to be a work of 
God, promised the financial support. In the autumn of 1886 all but 
Wilder withdrew for various reasons. But he, in spite of his father's 
severe illness, agreed to go alone if necessary. He secured John 
Forman, also of Princeton and born of India missionary parents, to 
go with him. They visited 162 schools and secured over two thou- 
sand Volunteers. These two men were unprepossessing but they 
were genuinely religious and at Princeton in the Wilder home they 
had formulated many facts about missions and world conditions into 
an effective argument for their cause. In 1887-88 no one visited the 
schools but new names came in. In 1888-89 Wilder again visited 
the schools and in 1889-90 Robert Speer made the tour. Speer had 
been led to volunteer at Princeton when Wilder and Forman visited 
there. He had just now graduated with high honors. His eloquence 
and religious earnestness resulted in a total of 1 100 new Volunteers 
in the 110 institutions he visited! By 1891, when the first Quadren- 



30 SCHWARZENAU 

nial Convention was held, there were 6200 names on the membership 
roll of the Movement. 

The Organization and Program of the S. V. M. 
It was two years after the Movement had been flourishing in in- 
formal and personal ways, that it was organized. Due to tendencies 
toward independent and irresponsible development the leaders of 
the Y. M. C. A. and the leading Volunteers organized the S. V. M, 
in 1888. They formed an executive committee by securing represen- 
tatives of the other student Christian organizations. John R. Mott, 
who was now coming into prominence in the Y. M. C. A. as an inter- 
collegiate secretary, became the chairman. He was a Volunteer but 
felt led to fulfill his purpose by giving the Y. M. C. A. a missionary 
aim. The Y. W. C. A. was represented by Nettie Dunn, a Volun- 
teer from Michigan who had just become the first travelling secre- 
tary for the college work of the Y. W. C. A. Robert Wilder repre- 
sented the Inter-seminary Alliance. Thus this new Movement was 
integrated with the other organizations which were flourishing on 
the campuses. It was conceived as the missionary department of the 
Christian Associations and the Volunteers on the local campuses 
were expected to be active in these Associations. The travelling 
secretaries were chosen each year from student Volunteers who were 
on their way to the mission field. An educational secretary was soon 
chosen — Harlan P. Beach of China — who inaugurated a stimulating 
and influential program of mission study. This program included 
the production of text books for voluntary study classes, the training 
of leaders for these classes, the enlargement of library literature on 
missions, and the enlistment and supervision of classes. In co-ordi- 
nating the work of travelling secretaries, the educational secretaries, 
and the individual Volunteers, Mott proved to be an indefatigable 
worker with the twin gifts of far vision and patient concern for de- 
tails. Being employed by the Y. M. C. A. and also acting as chair- 
man of the executive committee of the Movement (which position 
he held until 1920!) he was able to co-ordinate the various aspects 
of the total student Christian movement. Since his first love was the 
S. V. M. he was able to make its ideals and aims influential in this 
wider movement. 



STUDENT VOLUNTEER 31 

The First Three Quadrennial Conventions 

After four and one half years of growth among students it was 
felt In 1891 that a convention should be held which would co-ordinate 
the work and interest of the Volunteers among themselves, and also 
which would relate them more effectively with the boards and so- 
cieties of the churches. This Convention was the first of a series 
which made the Movement widely known on the campuses and 
throughout the country. On the campuses, the work of the Volun- 
teers had been promoted through the Christian Associations, but 
this Convention was under the direct administration of the officers 
of the Movement and as such it grew to be the biggest event in the 
student world. Moreover the Movement's watchword, which was 
emblazoned across the Convention platform, came to be the united 
objective of the total student Christian movement. So these Con- 
ventions were to fill a large place in the life and development of the 
Movement. At this first one there were 680 delegates and leaders 
in attendance. By the time the third one was held, in Cleveland a- 
gain, in 1898 the attendance had increased to 2221. 

The Ideology of the S. V. M. 

The work of the S. V. M. was set within the religious orthodoxy 
of its time and drew strength from its emphasis upon the authority of 
the Scriptures, the power and importance of prayer, the deity and 
authority of Christ, the necessity of conversion for salvation, the 
consequent importance of evangelism, and the need for deeper con- 
secration of wealth and life to Christian work. Beyond these em- 
phases, the Movement laid great stress upon the much greater need 
and opportunity In the foreign field, and the need for each student 
to face this need and plan his life accordingly. Students were now 
supposed to give a reason why they were called to stay at home and 
to assume the great commission applied to foreign missions in par- 
ticular. This pressure was laid on students in terms of the Move- 
ment's declaration card. And the fulfillment of this declaration of 
purpose to become a foreign missionary, if God permit, was regarded 
as a maximum and direct contribution to the Movement's great ob- 
jective : The evangelization of the world In this generation. 

This watchword grew out of an earlier background of pre-mlllen- 
nial expectation but after it was adopted by the Movement, It was 
expounded and promoted by Mott who gave It a comprehensive in- 



32 SCHWARZENAU 

terpretation as the permanent goal of the Christian forces in the 
world. By 1900-10 he had secured tacit acceptance of it as a work- 
ing ideal, by the world-wide student Christian movement and by the 
co-operating forces of Christian missionary expansion. This watch- 
word served to gather up into a specific slogan many of the basic 
trends and ideals of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 
Its emphasis upon evangelism was relevant to the whole movement 
of revivalism. It expressed the growing ambitions of the expanding 
missionary forces. The imperialism of Protestant nations found 
partial expression in this slogan of world conquest. While the watch- 
word was first suggested by Pierson from a pre-millennialist point of 
view, it gave expression also to the growing belief in progress. The 
dominant mood of the S. V. M. was one of optimism, and it was felt 
that a new and successful era of progress among the nations was be- 
ing ushered in by the evangelizing work of the church. The Move- 
ment assumed, and was able to lead others to assume, that foreign 
mission endeavor was the fulfillment of Christendom's destiny. 

The Period of Expanding Achievement: 1900-20 

During the first two decades of the twentieth century the Move- 
ment continued to expand along the lines of the program and ide- 
ology which characterized it in the early formative period from 
1886 to 1900. The general political and economic movements were 
likewise expansive in their outlook. Up to the time of the world war 
the mood of American life was hopeful. The forces which were be- 
ginning to create difficulties did not overtake the mission program 
until after the war was over. The Protestant societies sent out from 
America 480 new missionaries in 1903 but by 1920 this figure reach- 
ed 1731 — an all time peak. The fifteen leading Protestant societies 
spent in 1901 a total of $5,300,100 for foreign missions, but in 1920 
the total was $29,671,076. This growth in scope was paralleled by 
a similar growth in unity and co-operation which reached definitive 
expression in the Edinburgh missionary conference of 1910. More- 
over the Movement's leaders came to have a larger place in respon- 
sible missionary circles. For Mott was chairman of this 1910 con- 
ference and began his vigorous career as a worldwide missionary 
statesman. His leadership of the expanding missionary forces did 
not interfere with his continued leadership of the S. V. M. and vig- 
orous promotion of the Y. M. C. A. program. Indeed he was able to 



STUDENT VOLUNTEER 33 

co-ordinate these various movements so that they all pointed in the 
direction of fulfilling the watchword of the Movement. During this 
period the missionary outlook unified both the work of the churches 
and the activities of the student Christian movement. Indeed, Mott 
had already established in 1895, the World's Student Christian Fed- 
eration, which under his leadership in this period, unified student 
movements all over the world. 

The Post-War Slump 

The years of the war drained much missionary interest into mili- 
tary and European channels. But right after the war there was a 
burst of expansive missionary zeal. For it was felt that the Ideals of 
the war were in harmony with the optimistic missionary crusade of 
the S. V. M. The Convention held In Des Moines in 1920 marked 
the peak of the Movement's development. It was attended by 6890 
people from 949 schools and was followed by a peak year of newly 
enrolled Volunteers — 2783. The churches put on big drives for 
forward movement funds and laid out vast programs for Christian 
world expansion. But this high peak of expansion was soon followed 
by a period of confusion and decline In the whole missionary pro- 
gram of the churches and the missionary emphasis of the student 
world. The number of Volunteers enrolled dropped from 2783 In 
1920 to 25 In 1938. The number of Volunteers who sailed dropped 
from 637 in 1921 to 38 In 1934. The num.ber of missionaries who 
sailed dropped from 1731 In 1920 to 367 In 1932. The attendance 
at the Quadrennial Conventions dropped from the 1920 peak to 
2260 from 402 schools in 1932. These latter figures rallied in 1936 
but by 1940 the Convention held In Toronto was attended by 465 
delegates from 170 schools. 

These marks of the Movement's decline were paralleled by inter- 
nal strain, confusion and change. Mott resigned as chairman of the 
executive committee and J. Ross Stevenson resigned as its vice chair- 
man, soon after the Des Moines Convention. After their long period 
of continued leadership, there was frequent change in their offices. 
The same was true of the Movement's headquarters staff. Fennell 
P. Turner had served as General Secretary from 1897 to 1919. He 
was followed by Robert Wilder who served until 1927 who was in 
turn succeeded by Jesse R. Wilson who served until 1936, After that 

two men served in four years with periods of uncertain administra- 
3 



34 SCHWARZENAU 

tion between them. This same rapid change marked the entire staff 
during this period. The whole administrative structure was changed 
several times and different relationships were worked out with other 
organizations for the former bases of co-ordination proved increas- 
ingly unsatisfactory. The same change appeared in the literature 
program. The Movement resumed publication of its own organ in 
1920 which was changed in form and frequency several times be- 
fore being merged again with the Intercollcgian of the Y. M. C. A. 
The watchword dropped rapidly out of use and the declaration card 
was revised. The purpose and methods of the Quadrennial Conven- 
tions came in for radical criticism and revision for in these Conven- 
tions the S. V. M. had been the unifying center of the whole student 
Christian movement. And now the shifting interests of the Chris- 
tian Associations no longer were served by the traditional program. 
The result was that a sense of separation developed between the 
S. V. M. and the Christian Associations just at the time that there 
was a strongly felt need for increased unity in the face of overwhelm- 
ing world problems. 

Factors in the Movement's Decline 

Many efforts were made at adjusting the Movement's program to 
the new conditions so as to recover its position. But the trend of 
decline continued steadily. Many reasons have been given for this. 
It is fairly clear that no one reason is an adequate explanation of it. 
Internally these years were marked by many changes of leadership. 
This broke the continuity of its life and also left the subtle impres- 
sion that it was a sinking ship from which they were fleeing. There 
was increasing difficulty in financing its program which was closely 
related to the depression and to the loss of Mott's direct leadership. 
The program tended to be topheavy and the effort to make it demo- 
cratic led to an increased separation of the Movement from the 
Christian Associations. Its emphasis upon foreign missions seemed 
to overlook glaring needs in America and so the Movement ap- 
peared to be a specialized affair rather than a comprehensive one. 
It had always been both a student movement and a missionary move- 
ment. When the interest of the students veered away from missions 
it left the Movement in a dilemma as to which interest to follow. At 
this critical juncture there was a great decline in missionary educa- 
tion. One reason for this was the assumption that discussion of 



STUDENT VOLUNTEER 35 

world problems by students was an Improvement over the former 
type of Informative procedure. The Conventions came to have this 
discusslonal character. 

Other factors lay In the related organizations. The Christian 
Associations, which had cradled the Movement, had also changed 
to a leadership who were less personally connected with the Move- 
ment. Their emphasis shifted away from the Bible study, evange- 
lism, life-work decision, and foreign mission obligation on which the 
S. V. M. had originally built. Instead, they now emphasized new 
issues such as race relations, economic injustice, and imperialism 
which appeared to be world wide rather than limited to the foreign 
field. These and other rival Issues and movements deflected student 
loyalties away from the Movement. The mission program of the 
Protestant churches was also changing, leading to a great reduction 
In the number of outgoing missionaries. Since the Movement di- 
rected all Its members to seek service under these churches, the 
Movement lost the Immediate outlet for Its Volunteers. The rise of 
indigenous leaders reduced the need for western personnel. And 
the rise of the social gospel blotted out the sharp distinction between 
Christian America and the "Unevangelized portions of the world." 

These more immediate factors were also affected by more general 
ones. The World War was followed by a reaction of disillusion- 
ment which reduced Interest in crusades. There was a widely her- 
alded revolt of youth against an earlier generation just at the time 
when the Movement was obliged to transfer itself to a new genera- 
tion. The rise of nationalism In the orient made the whole mission 
program less welcome there and made It necessary for westerners 
to be more deferent toward indigenous people. 

The pressure of all forces showed up acutely in the confusion In its 
Ideology and the decline In Its relevance. These were apparently too 
great and too far reaching to permit the recovery of its early power. 
Orthodox Christian thought underwent change, especially in the edu- 
cational world which was the province of the S. V, M. Revivalism 
had given way to basic uncertainty as to the validity of the Chris- 
tian faith, especially of its claims to exclusive supremacy. Accord- 
ingly the watchword fell Into disuse and the argument for foreign 
missions lost its force. No new conceptions appeared which served 
to unite the ideals and aspirations of the new generation. And this 
resulted In the almost complete disappearance of the declaration 



36 SCHWARZENAU 

card as the basis of membership. The newer emphasis upon a world 
wide Christian community for which we all are working does not yet 
appear to be specific enough in its life work challenge to carry on the 
Volunteer tradition. 

The S. V. M. arose within a united and mission minded student 
Christian movement at a time when the mission program of the 
churches was expanding rapidly. This foreign mission emphasis 
was given expansive form in the Movement's watchword and served 
as a stirring objective for the students and the churches. This ob- 
jective was presented to the students in the definite terms of a life 
work decision set in religious terms, but which decision led to a 
specific career. These factors have now changed so completely that 
the Movement can no longer fulfill its characteristic function. While 
its organization still continues and it may be able to find some useful 
function in the student Christian movement, it has almost ceased to 
be a decisive factor in the promotion of the missionary program of 
the churches. This program has changed and declined but is still 
flourishing, though its promotion is almost completely carried on 
by the churches themselves. It is conceivable that the S, V. M. may 
again grow into an important and effective movement, for some of 
its earlier functions still need to be fulfilled. Such another cycle of 
vigorous usefulness however would be another Movement. 



LOWER MIAMI CHURCH 

By Ross L. Noffsinger 

Sometimes this church is spoken of as the "Cradle of Religion in 
the Miami Valley." This church was founded by Elder Jacob 
Miller in 1805. 

Elder Miller came to what is now Jefferson Township, Mont- 
gomery County, in about 1800. Land west of the Miami River 
was not put up for sale until after 1801. Elder Miller's first land 
entry is dated July 28, 1801. At about this time, in what is now 
Dayton, there were just a few log cabins. Miller's land was in 
sections 35 and 36; this later, 1831-1840, was transferred to Miami 
Township. Then he bought all of section eleven, and three fourths 
of a mile north of the church he built his home. This is where, in 
1815, he died and was buried. 



Upper Pit'tiire: Lowtr Miami ^!eeliiisli(»ust', 1.S71 

Lower Picture: Lower .Miami Meetirigliouse, Kemodeled 1J»:?S 





The Spot of Elder Jaeob Miller's Grave 
(See Text of Article) 



LOWER MIAMI CHURCH 37 

Pell Holler is the only man that knows the whereabouts of Elder 
Miller's grave. Accompanying is a picture of Pell Holler standing 
on the spot where Elder Miller is believed to be buried. 

At one time there were a number of markers standing around 
here, but during the years the markers have disappeared. As Pell 
Holler remembers it, it was where he is standing in this picture 
that there was a marker standing for Elder Miller. At the time 
this picture was taken the grave was along the edge of a wheat 
field, on the farm of Mrs. Adam Becker. Bro. Holler is looking 
south and the Shell Road is due north of his position approximately 
forty rods. The trees in the picture are on a creek bank and are 
about one rod from the grave site. 

We are not sure about the details of the first church house. It 
was probably a brick house with no basement. Sometime later a 
frame kitchen was added to the south end of the structure. The 
plot of ground was donated by Eli and Samuel Noffsinger. 

In 1871 a church house was erected with a basement, 42 x 60 feet, 
costing $3,500.00. Much of the material and labor were donated 
in the erection of this house. The chief builders were John Noffsing- 
er, Sr., and Jacob Keen. 

Elders Miller, Boltin, Etter, Bowman, John Garber (or Garver), 
and others met at Brother Miller's residence in October of 1805 
and organized the Lower Miami church. From this church grew 
the following churches : Bear Creek, Lower Stillwater, Trotwood, 
Ft. McKinley, Wolf Creek, Brookville, Eversole, Beaver Creek, 
and East and West Dayton. The Four-mile church near Richmond, 
Indiana, was founded by Elder Jacob Miller. 

Before there was a church house the Brethren met in the various 
homes for church services. And after some time their number 
increased so that they had to hold their communion service in some 
of the large barns. The Dan Noffsinger barn, in later years belong- 
ing to the Huffers, was a large barn that could accommodate the 
Brethren very nicely. Also a very large bank barn on the Isaac 
Shank farm was so used for many years. This was one of the larg- 
est bank barns in Montgomery County. It was later owned by Rev. 
Jacob Holler and his good wife, Elizabeth (Shank) Holler. 

The split in the church in 1882 did not affect the Lower Miami 
church so very much. Brother Chas. C. Stebbins can remember 
when the Progressive Brethren met on a Sunday afternoon at the 



38 SCHWARZENAU 

church and found that the doors were locked so H. R. Holsinger 
dehvered his sermon from the doorstep. 

Among the presiding elders we have had: Jacob Miller, 1 SOS- 
IS 15; Benjamin Bowman, 1815 to about 1S22; Frederick. Holler, 
1S22 to about 1845; Michael Moyer, 1845-1857; Dan Noffsinger, 
1S57-1S66; George Holler, 1866-1897; Enoch Hyer, 1897-1913 
(the oldest Elder presided up to this time) ; Emanuel Shank; J. O. 
Garst; Jesse Noffsinger; and John Garst, our present Elder. 
Among those Elders and ministers that were not presiding are: 
some of Jacob Miller's sons, Samuel Boltin, Bowman, David Mur- 
ry, Daniel Bock, Frank Cotterman, Jacob Holler, John S. Noffsing- 
er, Lawrence Garst, Paul Noffsinger, John Kneisley, and Ross L. 
Noffsinger. 

The first Sunday school was organized in 1879. John Murry 
was the first superintendent. Silas BlUman was the first chorister 
to serve both Sunday school and church in this capacity. 

The Sunday school grew very steadily until 1937 when it was 
felt that we needed more Sunday-school class room. In 1938 we 
rededicated our new and remodeled building. When it was re- 
dedicated it was free of debt. 

Today you will find that the Lower Miami church is going for- 
ward in the work of the kingdom of God. 

Following is as complete a list of members as I was able to find in the 
year 1940. 

Ora Brumbaugh Bruce Ballard 

Mrs. Ora Brumbaugh Marie Ballard 

Mary Brumbaugh Myrtle Ballard 

Daniel Brain Floyd Brooks 

Alice Brain Margaret Coblentz 

Rosa Brain John Clemmer 

Mary Brain Clarence Grain 

Sara Bilman Laura Belle? 

Daniel Baker Edna Cole 

Laura Baker Lanora Cole 

Jesse Brumbaugh Norman Coatis 

Edith Brumbaugh Mary Derringer 

Audry Brumbaugh Ralph Derringer 

Mildred Brumbaugh Pauline Derringer 

E. M. Book Glenna Derringer 

Mrs. E. M. Book Raymond Derringer 

Samuel Ballard Earl Dils 

Mrs. Samuel Ballard Ida Dils 



LOWER MIAMI CHURCH 



39 



Mrs. Donson 
Attie Deshong 
Hazel Deshong 
Dan Davis 
Joseph Ebright 
Lucile Ebright 
Lester Ebright 
Raymond Ebright 
Bob Eager 
Ruben D. Furrey 
Mrs. Ruben D. Furrey 
Viola Furrey 
William Furrey 
Blanche Furrey 
Herman Furrey 
Catherine Furrey 
Wilmer Furrey 
Dennis Flora 
Anna Flora 
Virginia Flora 
Zetha Flora 
Maudie Flora 
Dortha Flora 
Jesse Foutz 
Orvile Foutz 
Olive Foutz 
Wilbur Flora 
Edith Foust 
Bula Foust 
Naomi Flora 
Junior Flora 
Everett Flora 
Treva Flora 
Rosella Foust 
Susanna Foust 
Corwin Foust 
Wilbur Foust 
Jack Foust 
Paul Foust 
Richard Foust 
Annas Foust 
Jesse Garst 
Eliza Garst 
John Garst 
Naomi Garst 
Grace Garst 
Lawrence Garst 
Abram George 
Amelia George 
Lester George 
Chester George 



Fred George 
Mrs. Fred George 
Genevieve Garst 
Orpha Garst 
Glenn Garver 
Ida Garver 
Jean Garver 
Norma Garver 
George Garver 
Samuel Garver 
Enoch Hyre 
Mary Hyre 
John Huffer 
Rachel Huffer 
Jacob Huffer 
Lina Huffer 
Katie Huffer 
Lizzie Holler 
Leroy Holler 
Jane Holler 
"Bertha Holler 
Perry Holler 
Hazel Holler 
Mary Holler 
John Hetter 
Keiffer Hoover 
Flora Hoover 
Zelma Holler 
John Hepner 
William Hepner 
Omer Hepner 
Felicia Hepner 
Hubert Holler 
Mr. Hunt 
Mrs. Hunt 
Veda Holler 
Loora Holler 
Philip Hunt 
Emma Jeuden 
Charles Laprad 
Ada Laprad 
Lula Laprad 
James Lamsdale 
Ada Lamsdale 
Nellie Lamsdale 
William Lamsdale 
Susie Lamsdale 
Mary Lamsdale 
Nora Laprad 
Walter Laprad 
Rosa Leida 



40 



SCHWARZENAU 



Russel Leida 
Ralph Leida 
Omer Leida 
Helen Laprad 
John Moyer 
Laura Moyer 
Jesse Moyer 
Harrison Moyer 
John Moyer 
Roy Moyer 
Orpha Aioyer 
Chester Aloyer 
Noah Martin 
Mrs. Noah Martin 
Ruth Moyer 
Richard Alarcas 
Glenna Moyer 
Alilton Medler 
Sherman Mohler 
2^1rs. Mohler 
Delmer Moyer 
Harold Moyer 
Denver Martin 
James Martin 
Ina Martin 
Waine Mohler 
Eli Noffsinger 
Wilbur Noffsinger 
Anna Neff 
Charles Neff 
Mauda Neff 
Clarence Neff 
Anna Noft'singer 
Rebecca Noffsinger 
Jesse Noffsinger 
Flora Noffsinger 
Frank Noffsinger 
Addah Noffsinger 
John Noffsinger 
Susie Noffsinger 
Mary Nedich 
Altha Nedich 
Catherine Noffsinger 
Robert Noffsinger 
Paul Noffsinger 
Lucile Noffsinger 
Carl Noffsinger 
Ross Noffsinger 
Roy Noffsinger 
Lois Noffsinger 
Lowell Noffsinger 



Ray Noffsinger 

John Noffsinger 

Mark Noffsinger 

Charles Noft'singer 

Mildred (Throne) Noffsinger 

Cleveland Pock 

Gertrude Pock 

Mrs. Putterbaugh 

Andy Philabaum 

Mary Philabaum 

Susie Philabaum 

Annas Puff 

Carl Routzong 

Eugene Routzong 

Amos Routzong 

Zelma Routzong 

William Routzong 

Erne Pike 

Frances Root 

Rosie Root 

Ethel Root 

Iven Reist 

E. B. Rubele 

Pearl Rubele 

Nancy Reed 

Charles Swope 

Alice Swope 

Marshal Swope 

Elizabeth (Groft") Swope 

Laura Shorp 

Alice Stiver 

Sara Stebbins 

George Stebbins 

Rosa Stebbins 

Ray Stebbins 

Charlotte Stebbins 

Delbert Stebbins 

Winnefred Stebbins 

John Stebbins 

Lizzie Stebbins 

Charles Stebbins 

Mark Stebbins 

Lula Stebbins 

Mark Stebbins 

Roy Stebbins 

Cecile Stebbins 

Iva Stebbins 

Dortha Shively 

Ed Stebbins 

Ada Stebbins 

Earl Stebbins 



LOWER MIAMI CHURCH 



41 



Elmer Stebbins 
Armetha Stebbins 
Alice Stebbins 
Glenn Stebbins 
Howard O. Stebbins 
Emma Stebbins 
Lester Stebbins 
Elsie Stebbins 
Frank Stebbins 
Catherine Stebbins 
Cecile Stebbins 
Walter Stebbins 
Paul Stebbins 
Mildred Stebbins 
Herman Stebbins 
Katie Sassaman 
John Sassaman 
Glenn Sassaman 
Grace Sassaman 
Wilbur Sassaman 
Mrs. Stump 
Russel Stump 
Elmer Stump 
Emma Stull 
George Strader 
Mary Strader 
Clarence Stull 
Sofiah Stutzman 
Ethel Sollenberger 
Ira Stout 
Emmanuel Shank 
Alice Shank 
Charles Shank 
Maud Shank 
Raymond Shank 
Vera Shank 
Mildred Shank 
Miriam Shank 
B. O. Shank 
Minerva Shank 
\''esta Shank 
Rebecca Shank 
Daniel Shank 
Mary Shank 
Howard Shank 



Walter Shank 
Alvaia Shank 
Maud Shank 
Norma Shivedecker 
Orvilla Shivedecker 
Ruth Stebbins 
Lois Stebbins 
Emma May Stebbins 
Elmer Smith 
Clara Smith 
Flora Smith 
Florence Smith 
Marie Smith 
Edith Smith 
Freda Ruth Stebbins 
Margery Stebbins 
Betty Smith 
Marcella Swope 
Howard Stoner 
Betty Stebbins 
Charles Shorp 
Mirle Stebbins 
Sarah Stebbins 
Catherine Stebbins 
Mary Ellen Stebbins 
Billy Stebbins 
Paul Smith 
Dortha Tallanger 
Daniel Toms 
Thomas TuUey 
Bob TuUey 
Robert Tod 
William Wiseman 
Susan Wade 
Nora Wade 
Stephen Wasko 
Frank Wasko 
Lennie West 
Margarite West 
Robert West 
3.1artha West 
Eugene West 
Edith Wolf 
Daniel Yonce 



42 



SCHWARZENAU 



Ancient Records of the Lower Miami Church 



N.8<^"VY 



ia.l6R0D5 ^ 




NOV. 19"^'' 18^5 



Before me George Olinger Justice 



Survey and plat of a lot of ground for a Meeting house being in Section 
No. 14. Town 3 and range 5, East of a merdian line from the mouth of the 
Great Miami River and bounded and described as follows. 

Beginning at a planted stone on the line between the lands of Eli and 
Samuel Noffsinger and on the west edge of the pike leading from Dayton 
to Germantown,Thence along the west edge of said pike S. 31 degrees W. 
15.2 rods to a planted stone, thence N. 34^/2 W. 14.4 rods to a planted stone 
on the line between Eli and Samuel Noffsinger, Thence N. 85^4 degrees 
E. 16 rods to the place of beginning; Containing 99.62 square rods, more 
or less, (being cut off of Eli Nofifsinger's land) 

Also a piece cut off of Samuel Noffsingers land described and as follows ; 
beginning at a stone on W. side of said Pike, thence N. 31 degrees east 
(two) 2 rods to a planted stone on the edge of said pike, Thence N. 86 
degrees W. 18.16 rods to a stone. Thence S. 34y^ degrees east 2 rods to a 
stone ; Thence N. SS% degrees 16 rods to the place of beginning, containing 
28.69 square rods more or less. 



LOWER MIAMI CHURCH 43 

Deed. 1866 in Book No. 12 page 233 in the records of Montgomery 
County, Ohio. 

Know all men by these presents that we Samuel Xoffsinger and Mary 
Noffsinger wife of Samuel XofTsinger of the county of Montgomery and 
state of Ohio in the consideration of the sum of one dollar in hand paid by 
Michael Moyer and Daniel Xoffsinger and their successors in office the 
following premises: situated in the county of Montgomery and state of 
Ohio being in Section No. 14, Town 3, Range 5 East of a mederian line 
drawn from the mouth of the Great Miami River and bounded and describ- 
ed as follows : Beginning at a stone on the west side of the pike leading 
from Dayton to Germantown, thence H. 31 degrees E. 2 rods to a planted 
stone at the edge of said pike. Thence X. 86 degrees W. 18.16 rods to a 
stone. Thence S. 34^ degrees E. 2 rods to a stone. Thence X. 85 degrees 
16 rods to a place of beginning containing 28.69 hundredths square rods more 
or less. To have and to hold said premises with the apportenances unto the 
said Michael Moyer and Daniel Xoffsinger ^linisters of the aforesaid and 
their successors in office as aforesaid foreever for the sole use and benefit 
of the Dunkard Church of the Brethren Generaly and the said Samuel 
Xoffsinger for himself and heirs doth here by covenant with said ^Michael 
Moyer and Daniel X'offsinger Ministers as aforesaid and their successors 
in office as aforesaid that subject of the premises aforesaid and that the 
premises aforesaid and that the premises are free and clear from all incum- 
brances whatsoever and that he will for ever warrant and defend the same 
with the appurtenances unto the said Michael Moyer and Daniel Xoffsinger 
Ministers as aforesaid and their successors in office as aforesaid for the 
use aforesaid against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever. In 
Testimony whereof the Samuel Xoffsinger and Alary X'^offsinger his wife 
who here by relinquishes her right of dower in the premises have hereunto 
set their hands and souls this 28th. day of January in the year of our Lord 
one thousands eight hundred and forty six. 

Signed and Sealed and acknowdedged in the presence of us 
Jacob Kline Samuel X^offsinger 

Mary Xoffsinger 



Deed 1866, Book X'o. L2 P. 232. Records of Montgomery County. Ohio. 

Know all these men by these present that the Eli Xoffsinger and Mary 
Xoffsinger wife of said Eli XToft"singer of the County of ^Montgomery and 
State of Ohio in consideration of the sum of one dollar in hand paid by 
Michael Moyer and Daniel Xoff'singers Ministers of the Baptist Church or 
Brethren commonly called Dunkards have bargined and sold and do here 
by grant bargin, Sell and convey unto the said ]\Iichael Moyer and Daniel 
Xoffsinger and their successors in office forever the following premises. 
Situate in the county of Montgomery and State of Ohio being in Section 
No. 14 Town 3 and Range 5 East of a mederian line dawn from the mouth of 
the Great Miami River and bounde and described as follows, Beginning at a 
planted stone on the line between the lands of Eli and Samuel X^'offsinger 
and on the wxst edge of the Pike leading from Dayton to Germantown 



44 



SCHWARZENAU 



thence along the west edge of said Pike S. 81 degrees W. 15.2 rods to a 
planted stone, thence N. 36^ degrees \V. 14.6 rods to a planted stone on 
the line between Eli and Samuel Xoffsinger. Thence N. 85^ degrees E. 
16 rods to the place of beginning containing 99.62 hundredths square rods 
more or less. To have and hold to said premises with the appurtenances 
unto the said Michael Moyer and Daniel Xoffsinger ministers of the afore- 
said and their successors in office as the aforesaid forever, for the sole use 
and benefit of the Dunkard Church or Brethren generaly, and said Eli Noff- 
singer for himself and his heirs doth hereby convenant with said ^lichael 
}vIoyer and Daniel Xoff'singer Ministers as aforesaid that he is lawfully 
seized from all incumbrances whatsoever and that he will forever warrant 
and defend the same with the purtenance with said Michael Moyer and 
Daniel X'offsinger Ministers as aforesaid for the uses aforesaid and their 
successors in office as aforesaid for the uses aforesaid against the lawful 
claims of all persons whensoever In Testimony whereof the said Elis Xoff- 
singer and Mary X^offsinger his wife who hereby relinquishes her right of 
dower in the premises have hereunto set their hands and souls this 28th. day 
of January in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fortysix. 

signed. Sealed & acknowledged in the presence of 
Jacob Kline Eli Xoffsinger 

Mary Xoffsinger 



LOWER ^TIAMI CHURCH 

(Rededication, May 29. 1938) 

Bv Chas. C. Stebbins 



One hundred years ago and more 

Living along the Miami shore 

Was an Indian redskin tribe, 

Upon this fertile country they did thrive. 

How long they lived and loved here 
And the Indian wooed his mate dear 
Perhaps no one can ever tell, 
But they lived and loved, we know, full 
well. 

The white man came from over the seas 

He came, and builded — colonies. 

'Twas a stormy time between the Red and 

the White 
But at last the White man won the fight. 

Poor Indian was driven from tepee and 

home 
.And further west he had to roam. 
He had to go so you and I 
Could enjoy this fine old country. 

The white man came to worship his Lord, 
He brought with him the Holy Word, 
He founded churches here and there, 
For, man will worship, everywhere. 



Jacob Aliller to the Miami Valley came 
And Lower Miami is the Church's name. 
Jacob Miller, a devout old man. 
We thank him, now, as best we can. 

The third church house is standing here 
Built 1871 by our forefathers dear. 
Now this addition and remodel we make, 
Our thanks to God, we beg Him, take. 

Lower Miami a parent has been. 

To churches around us. now and then : 

Bear Creek, Ft. ]\icKinley and Happy 

Corner, too. 
East Dayton, West Dayton, not a few. 

Our church is not as large as some 

churches are 
But our girls and boys stray near and far. 
From coast to coast they preach the Word 
And good lives live and honor their Lord. 

We are thanking God and all of you. 
In w'ishing Godspeed is best we can do. 
God give us grace to live aright 
And help us on to win the fight. 



ROANN CHURCH 45 

We dedicate our house today, And now, dear Lord, we give to you 

And to our God our homage pay. This building and our worship true. 

We dedicate to you, dear Lord, May we go on and worship here, 

That we may feed upon your Word. May this church live for many a year. 

We dedicate without a debt We dedicate, we consecrate. 

And willing be, O Lord, and yet And for your blessings, Lord, we wait. 

We owe you all we hope to be. May you come down in spirit now, 

Thou art most gracious, help us see. While at 3"our feet we humbly bow. 



ROANN CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN 
ROANN, INDIANA 

By Bruce Flora 

At the outset, it must, in all fairness, be said that what material 
has been used in this paper has been entirely gathered from others. 
The author came to the Roann Congregation on June 1, 1940 as 
Student-Pastor while attending Bethany Biblical Seminary. He is 
now serving the second year at this post and the church at Roann 
is growing and the prospects for the future are much more rosy 
today than they were some ten, or even five years ago. The author 
claims to know nothing whatever about the church before he came 
to serve it as pastor, therefore the material herewith presented is 
claimed to be as objective in its fact and implication as could be writ- 
ten. There are many persons living in the brotherhood who have 
at one time or another worshipped at the Roann Church. Each of 
them has some contribution to make to a complete history of the 
congregation, but it has been physically impossible thus far to con- 
tact even a majority of those living in the congregation and adjoin- 
ing congregations, and those who have moved some distance away 
have not been consulted. 

The reader will notice immediately that this account of this con- 
gregation has gaps which should be filled, but the person with that 
knowledge has not been contacted. It is the hope of the author to 
complete this history so that every bit of tangible material may be 
preserved for the future. Much of the information herein listed 
has come from the memory of some of the older men and women 
of the community and of the church and only a very small part has 
been gleaned from books. 



46 SCHWARZENAU 

The first part, about the early organization, has been taken 
largely from Otho Winger's, History of the Church of the Brethren 
in Indiana. Much debt is due Bro. Winger for this and verbal in- 
formation which has been used. Certain specific events will be foot- 
noted and credit given to the person who gave the information, but, 
in general, the material has come from several sources on the same 
item, in which cases, no credit will be given in a footnote reference. 
The author desires to thank every one who has given information 
for this brief, and thus far sketchy history. 

The Roann church was at first a part of the Mexico Congrega- 
tion. The Mexico Church is located about ten miles due north of 
Peru, Indiana, on U. S. route 31. There is a small town by the same 
name and the church adjoins on the north. The Roann Church 
house was built on the banks of the Eel River, near the town of 
Roann. The town is located fifteen miles northeast of Peru, ten 
miles northwest of Wabash, Indiana, and fourteen miles southwest 
of North Manchester, Indiana. 

The church was organized in 1855 with about ninety members.^ 
The name given to this new outpost was Squirrel Creek Dunker 
Church, so named because of a small stream which flowed into Eel 
River near the church structure. The first meetinghouse was erected 
in 1864, on the north side of the Eel River and about one-half mile 
north of the town of Roann. "This house would have been built 
sooner but for the trials the brethren had in paying out those who 
had been drafted in the war." (War between the States — 1861- 
1865)." 

The congregation is located in the midst of a rich farming com- 
munity. Throughout its history the majority of its members have 
been farmers, who knew the feel of the soul for good soil. Thus 
there have been no great wealthy members but nearly all have been 
prosperous people who lived on and loved the soil. 

It might be well here to cite somewhat of the work of some who 
led in building this congregation and who so faithfully served it for 
many years. According to Winger some of these were: David Neff, 
who was elected deacon in 1861, was called to the ministry in 1865, 



1. Otho Winger : History of the Church of the Brethren in Indiana, p. 125. 

2. Ibid. 



ROANN CHURCH 47 

and ordained in 1872. Benjamin Neff and John Wagoner were 
elected to the ministry in 1868. Isaac Deardorf and David Swihart 
were elected to the ministry in 1872. In the seventies Elder Jesse 
Myers moved in from Iowa. Some of the early deacons who served, 
some long and some well, were : Shelby Arthur, John White, Alex- 
ander Abshire, J. T. Jenkins, Joseph John, Solomon Eikenberry, 
Abraham Landis, John Deardorf, Henry Neff, Isaac Bowman, 
James Zook, and George Deardorf. By 1881 (twenty-six years of 
life) there were 150 members (grown from ninety in 1855). 

In 1882 the name of the church was changed from Squirrel Creek 
to Roann and has been so known since. About this same time Aaron 
Moss moved into the congregation and served the church. Morris 
Dillman also came in about this time. In 1896 three young men of 
this congregation were called to the ministry: George E. Swihart, 
Henry J. Neff, and Robert Miller. Robert Miller later asked to 
be relieved of the office, Bro, Neff moved away in 1898, and Bro. 
Swihart continued to serve the church here. He was ordained to 
the eldership in October, 1904 and served as presiding elder for 
eleven years, save one, when Bro. J. D. Rife had charge. Bro. 
Swihart is still living in the congregation but, due to the infirmities 
of age, is now unable to participate actively in the preaching pro- 
gram but is still called on to conduct the last rites for many an old 
and lifelong friend. It has been the author's privilege to assist Bro. 
Swihart on several such occasions. 

The last one called to the ministry in this church (to the knowl- 
edge of the author) was Jonathan Cripe. Bro. I. E. Warren was 
ordained to the eldership in 1908. Bro. C. C. Miller came from 
Pleasant Valley, Ohio, in 1908 and served the church for a number 
of years. He still resides in the congregation and takes his place 
in the church program, being a guiding hand in the affairs of the 
church. In 1916 the membership of the church had dropped to 136, 
partly due to emigration, but also somewhat due to a transfer of 
some members to the Progressive branch of the church. 

Just a word might be in place here about the activities of the 
church in her heyday. Perhaps this can be caught into the picture 
by the following narrative by Sister Sarah Ranck, who has lived 
here these many years and is still active in the work of the kingdom. 

"How dear to the heart are the memories of the old Roann 
Church, from the days of horse-drawn conveyances, and solemn 



48 SCHWARZENAU 

services In candle light. Our pulpit was a long table along the 
north wall of our low, long brick house. On the north side of the 
table the ministers took their places; on the south side the faith- 
ful deacons sat. The west half of the building was for the women, 
perhaps because that was next to the kitchen with Its big fireplace 
for cooking and in one corner an old fashioned cradle where many a 
baby slept serenely, unconscious of Its future place In the church. 
The east half of the building belonged entirely to the men. The 
younger and more venturesome (If any) naturally appropriated 
the section half way between, and south of the table. 

"A pump In the well just outside the west kitchen door gave us a 
never failing supply of the coldest, clearest water. 

"The janitor and his wife generally lived in the kitchen and the 
second floor. This upper room was over all, and furnished a sleep- 
ing place for those who brought bedding from their faraway homes 
and stayed for the two days' 'Big Meetings.' This was before the 
day of inner spring mattresses and sleep was sweet on the hard 
floor after a season of fellowship by those of a like precious faith. 

"Many were the series of meetings which filled the house to over- 
flowing and added many good workers to the number. [The author 
Is reliably informed that as many as 1 100 persons attended some of 
these services and as many as 800 attended the love feast occasion.] 

"There were large classes of young people and the boys and girls 
were taught In separate classes. I well remember the girls' class 
for a number of years numbered eighteen — this was from about 
1908 to 1914. Many of these are now workers in the church, here 
and elsewhere." 

The day came when the subject of remodeling the old house of 
worship or building a new one was discussed. The decision reached 
was to build a new one. Then came the question of location. Should 
it be where the old one was? The decision was to move across the 
river Into the village of Roann. So it was that in 1920 an abandoned 
one-room brick Presbyterian Church building was purchased for 
$1000. It was necessary to remodel this building, and a basement, 
classrooms, entrance, and balcony were added, at a cost of approxi- 
mately $8000. 

This expenditure of $8000 was one of the saddest moves ever 
made by this congregation, for out of it grew hatreds, jealousies, 
and strifes. All could not be pleased with what was done, nor could 



^ 



ROANN CHURCH 49 

all assist in managing the work. Not all could do the work necessary 
to the project. But the sad story is, — some felt slighted, others 
felt hurt, while still others felt elated. Without saying who was 
who or what was what, the fact is that the church split up into fac- 
tions. The net result of the split-up was a loss of many members 
who went over to the Progressive branch, others withdrew from 
the church entirely, others became inactive (and are still so to some 
extent), while others tried to struggle on and carry the load which 
had been so unceremoniously thrown onto their shoulders. 

The membership rolls were depleted until scarcely fifty members 
remained, and many of these were not co-operating in the work. 
Time rolled on. Several pastors were called to serve the church, 
but none stayed long. Years were when there was no resident pastor. 
During this time Elder Edward Kintner was chosen to preside over 
the struggling congregation and he also served as pastor for many 
years. The faithful few kept attending and struggling, but growth 
was not there. One by one those who had gone away came back 
and the roll increased to ninety again, but the attendance at services 
was large if there were thirty present on Sunday morning. 

In 1938 Miss Mary Cook was chosen as pastor and served for 
nearly two years. During her term of office the membership increas- 
ed to ninety-six and attendance at services increased somewhat. 

(From this point it is necessary to deal with the church here under 
the leadership of the author; therefore, no evaluation will be at- 
tempted of this period. Only facts, substantiated by the records of 
the church clerk, will be given and no conclusions will be drawn, 
because the author cannot safely evaluate his own work nor does 
he desire to lay praise or blame when the success of the work at 
Roann is dependent upon the wholesome co-operation of all the 
members.) 

The average Sunday-school attendance during the first six months 
of 1941 was fifty-six, and the average Church (preaching) attend- 
ance was for the same period forty-seven. A high for the period 
was seventy-two at Sunday School and seventy-three at preaching 
service. A more wholesome attitude is being manifested by many 
of the members. Some members who had not attended services for 
several years (according to the Church clerk) are now In regular 
attendance and are participating in the work. 



LIBRARY 

BETHA-Y n^■^{^<:n stMi^MRY 

34J5 ,V. Vif, Buren Street 
Chicago 2.4, Illinois 



50 SCHWARZENAU 

The church has not grown by new baptisms but rather by a re- 
consecratlon on the part of some old members and by the return of 
letters of membership by some who had withdrawn them. Today 
the membership is 104 and the prospect is for more in the near 
future. 

The young people's group is large and bodes a great prospect 
for the future if they can be fed with the gospel and given the 
responsibility they should have. The picture is indeed much brighter 
than it was. 

Only now is it possible to urge outsiders to come and worship 
with us. Many were the days and weeks and years when the feeling 
of fellowship and friendship was lacking and the stranger was not 
welcome in the hearts of the congregation, although the church said, 
"Welcome." 

Can this congregation ever achieve the status it once enjoyed? 
Time alone can give the answer, but the author and present pastor 
can see great possibilities and the future may be once more dawning 
a new day. The debt of $8000 contracted in 1920 has been gradual- 
ly cut down until today only $396 remain unpaid. Last year over 
$200 was paid on this debt over and above the support of the local 
pastoral and church program. 

Thus ends a sketchy and incomplete picture of the Roann Church 
of Middle Indiana. Not enough dates and names have been in- 
cluded in this account. Most of the missing information must be 
gotten from individual memories, because, after the division caused 
by the building program, all of the church records prior to that date 
(1920) were lost. How? Some say they were deliberately de- 
stroyed. Others say they still exist but are held by someone still 
on the "outs" with the church. Whichever or whatever is the case, 
they are not at the disposal of the author. The district and even 
annual conference sent committees to Roann to help get the condi- 
tions straightened out. In this maze of committees many things 
were said and done which were regretted later and many things 
could be wiped off the record by destroying it. The fact is — the 
records are gone. The past is back of the Roann Church of the 
Brethren — so why not look forward — and build for the future — 
and for the glory of the Kingdom of God. 



^*^^*^*^^*^*^^*^#^*^^#^^^^^^^ -* 



NEXT ISSUE 
=0 January^ 1942 ^^ 
IBLIOGMAPHICAL 
NUMBER 



r»^»^»^^^»~»^»^»^»^»^*'»^»^'»-»^*^»^»^»^ 



SCHWARZENAU 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor, F. E. Mallott, Professor of Church History Bethany Biblical Senihtary 
Assistant Editor, Elgin S. Mover Contributing Editor, L. D. Rose 

Volume III JANUARY, 1942 Number Two 



CONTENTS 



An Historical Society 55 

F. E. Mallott 



Honor TO Whom Honor Is Due 57 



Chronological Bibliography of Books of 

Brethren Authorship 58 



Index of Authors by Year of Publication 1 1 2 



Historical Society Notes 115 



r#^*^*^•^#^#^#^#^#sr^^^#^#^#^#^#^#s#^#s#^#^#^»^^»^^^#^#^*^*^#^#^#^»^#J 



IBLIOGMAPHICAL 



NUMBER 




AN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

F. E. Mallott 

(The following is the President's Address at the Third Annual Business 
Meeting of the Alexander Mack Historical Society, November 18, 1941.) 

The existence of the Alexander Mack Historical Society is based 
on the premise that a Christian man's education ought not end with 
the arrival of adulthood. It is based on the premise that certainly a 
minister's education does not (and most emphatically ought not) 
end with his graduation from the Seminary. 

More specifically the minister's education in Church History ought 
not end with formal class work. A number of you to whom I am 
speaking, have completed the four terms of Church History required 
by the Seminary curriculum. It is doubtful whether next to Bible 
study, anything is more influential on a man's thought and ministry 
than the ideas of Church History which rule his consciousness. 

Another premise upon which this society is based is the assumption 
that the Dunker viewpoint is capable of being distinguished as a view- 
point in its own right. That there is a strand of tradition which is 
distinctive in that multiple-stranded tradition we call Christianity. 
The Dunker is a recognizable character on the stage of Christian 
history. 

How shall we describe that brotherhood which had its beginnings 
at Schwarzenau, and of which Schwarzenau may be used as a symbol? 

First, Dunkers may be said to be a company of Pietistic Biblical 
Mystics. 

The Brethren are not Protestants in any accurate usage of that 
term. It is an unfortunate slip in terminology that our most eminent 
historian has said that "The Church is a church of protest" when it 
is more accurate to say that the Church is a nonconforming Church. 

Protestant is that term applied to that group of national churches 
which were protesting against the hierarchical church. 

If the Brethren are not Protestant, they are certainly not Catholic 
(although they may be of the catholic church). But the Brethren 
have never had any relationship to the historical Hierarchy. Nor 
have they wished for any connection. 

55 



56 SCHWARZENAU 

They are mystics in that they hold in the fullest sense the imme- 
diate access of the soul to God. In the brotherhood each brother is 
free to speak and may win the assent of the brotherhood. They be- 
lieve that where "two or three are gathered together in My name, 
there am I in the midst of them." Matt. 18 :20. 

As a second description, it may be said that the Brethren are a 
fellowship based on the New Testament. As soon as men reach the 
stage of self-consciousness, they seek to articulate a philosophy. But 
men will not long hold a philosophy in the abstract. They will make 
a religion of it and clothe it with a ritual. 

The underlying faith of the Brethren is a democratic ethical ideal- 
ism. As such it had to find rootage or a basis somewhere. There had 
to be a norm. The norm of living was found in the New Testament 
and the same book furnished them with a ritual — the few simple rites 
of the New Testament Church as known to them from their study. 
In the researches of Gottfried Arnold they had excellent assistance 
in understanding the actual text. 

In the third place, the Dunkers are frequently described as one of 
the "Historic Peace Churches." 

This is true and is very relevant indeed today. Our energies will 
be occupied with the War and the aftermath of the War for many 
years (perhaps decades) to come. We have not "started to even 
begin to commence to understand" the implications of our pacific 
principles. Great vistas lie ahead of us. 

We recognize generally that we live in the Era of the Incarnation. 
We have accepted it. Fewer recognize that we belong to the Era of 
the Industrial Revolution. The two Eras overlap and must be 
brought into adjustment. 

It is because "of such a time as this" that we need to study. In a 
time when men are in tremor, agony and upheaval. Again, "the 
Kingdom is at hand." 

With such a rich and complex religious inheritance we need to 
study and continue to study. We must understand our own inher- 
itance and its implications. 

This Society is simply the fellowship or association of those who 
desire to carry on this study. The organization is slight. It is similar 
to an alumni association. Its publication is a medium of thought ex- 
change. Research has been humorously defined as the "search for 
information in inaccessible places and its transfer to other inacces- 
sible places." Knowledge is but poorly promoted so. 

There is a correlation between thought and conduct: between 



HONOR TO WHOAI HONOR IS DUE 57 

theory and program. It is in view of this we exhort all to study — 
and disseminate results of their study. 



HONOR TO WHOM HONOR IS DUE 

Not since Dr. John S. Flory produced his excellent book "Literary 
Activity of the Brethren in the Eighteenth Century" has much work 
been done in Brethren bibliography. 

Manifestly there was need to produce something which would 
cover the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as adequately as Flory's 
book had dealt with the eighteenth century. 

There has been much discussion but little action. The present ef- 
fort will be found to be imperfect. All involved apologize in ad- 
vance for imperfections. But "Schwarzenau" is also proud to pre- 
sent this bibliographical compilation. 

The work here presented is first of all the labor of Galen Ogden, 
B.D. of Bethany Biblical Seminary of 1941. Without his work there 
would have been no such Bibliography. 

E. S. Moyer, Ph.D. (our associate editor) and former librarian 
of Bethany Biblical Seminary (present Librarian of Moody Bible 
Institute) had long been interested in such a publication. His work, 
supplementary to Mr. Ogden's, was essential. 

Prof. L. W. Shultz, Librarian of Manchester College and mem- 
ber of the Historical Commission, a committee of the Council of 
Boards of Elgin, Illinois, has contributed to this compilation. His 
aid has been of considerable importance. 

Little explanation further is needed. The periodical literature of 
the Church is omitted, as being adequately dealt with elsewhere. 

There was at one time a plan to mark each work by a system of 
lettering that the reader might know the most accessible library in 
which he would find each work. This was found to be a labor of such 
immensity it was abandoned. 

But certain books are marked with one of three capital letters. 
Especially the rarer books are apt to be so marked. M signifies Man- 
chester College, North Manchester, Indiana. B signifies Bethany 
Biblical Seminary, Chicago, Illinois. E signifies the Elgin Library, 
which the Historical Commission is encouraging and which is housed 
in connection with the Brethren Publishing House. 

Our apologies to all other libraries who rightly and profitably 
house Brethren literature. Our thanks to the compilers. And our 
greetings and good wishes to all who may find this bibliography 
useful. 



CHRONOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 
BOOKS OF BRETHREN AUTHOR- 
SHIP— 1800-1941 

1833 Ned.d, Feter, Primitive Christianity. 219 p. 

1837 Kurtz, Henry, .American Advice and Help Book. Onaburg, 
Stark County, Ohio. 57 p. E. 

Home advice and recipes for all kinds of sickness and ac- 
cidents for humans and beasts, especially from the man- 
uscript of a once famous doctor who moved to Virginia. 

1844 Kurtz, Heinrlch, Die Kleine Lieder-Sammlung, oder Ausztig 
atis dem Psalterspiel der Kinder Zion's. Poland, Ohio : 
Henry Kurtz. 256, 306 p. B. 

1848 Kurtz, Henry — Same as Noted for 1852. A Choice Selec- 
tion. 

1848 Kurtz, Henry — Same as Noted for 1844. Die Kleine Lie- 
der. 

1850 Nead, Peter, Theological Writings on Various Subjects: A 
Vindication of Primitive Christianity, as Recorded in the 
Word of God. Dayton, Ohio: B. F. Ells. 472 p. B.M. 

1852 Kurtz, Henry (publisher), A Choice Selection of Hymns 
from Various Authors, Recommended for the Worship of 
God. Poland, Ohio: Henry Kurtz. 320 p. E. 
Words but no music. 

1864 Thurman, William C, The Ordinance of Feet Washing, as 
Instituted by Christ, Defended and Restored to its Original 
Purity. Philadelphia : John Goodyear. 168 p. 

, The Sealed Book of Daniel Opened: A Book of 

Reference for Those Who Wish to Examine the "Sure 
Word of Prophecy." Philadelphia : John Goodyear. 304 p. 
B. 

1865 Kinsey, Samuel, Pious Companion. Dayton, Ohio: author. 
132 p. B. 

Contains a variety of essays and hymns; hymns are adapt- 
ed to worship; different subjects for various occasions. 

1866 Nead, Peter, Wisdom and Power of God, as Displayed in 
Creation and Redemption. Cincinnati : E. Morgan & Sons. 
352 p. B.M. 

58 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 59 

1867 Kurtz, Henry, Brethren's Encyclopedia. Columbiana, Ohio: 
author. 148 p. B.M. 

Contains the united counsels and conclusions of the Breth- 
ren at their Annual Meetings, carefully collected, trans- 
lated (from the original German In part) and arranged 
In alphabetical and chronological order, accompanied with 
necessary explanatory notes. 

Moomaw, B. J., and Jackson, J. J., Trine Immersion. Sing- 
er's Glen, Virginia: Joseph Funk's Sons, printers. 282 p. 
B.M. 

A discussion on Trine Immersion by letters between 
Elder Benjamin F. Moomaw and Dr. J. J. Jackson, re- 
sulting In the conviction of the latter, and change of his 
religious associations; with an elaborate vindication of 
the doctrines of the church of his adoption. To which Is 
annexed a treatise on the Lord's Supper and the necessity, 
character, and evidences of the new birth. Also a dialogue 
on the doctrine of nonresistance. 

1868 Quinter, James, and Snyder, S. P., Is Immersion the Mode 
of Christian Baptism Authorized and Proved by the Bible: 
A Debate. Indianapolis : Douglass and Conner. 304 p. B.M. 

Held in Carroll County, Indiana, August 20-22, 1867. 
Reported by Charles W. Stagg of Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Quinter, James, and McConnell, N. A., A Debate on Trine 

Immersion, the Lord's Supper, and Feet JVashing. Cincin- 
nati : H. S. Bosworth, 326 p. B. 

Debate between James Quinter of Ohio (German Bap- 
tist) and N. A. McConnell of Iowa (Disciple) held at 
Dry Creek, Linn County, Iowa, October 14-18, 1867. 
Reported by J. L. McCreery of Dubuque, Iowa. 

1874 Beer, J. W., Jewish Passover and the Lord's Supper. Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania : Inquirer Printing and Publishing Co. 
258 p. B.M. 

A series of articles which appeared In the Christian Fam- 
ily Companion In 1871. 

Eshelman, Matthew Mays, Nonconformity to the World: 

A Vindication of True Vital Piet\. Dayton, Ohio : Christian 
Publishing Association. 215 p. B.M. 

1875 , Sabbatism: The One Faith Vindicated. Lanark, 

Illinois: Hay & Lowis, printers. 41 p. B. 

The law and gospel contrasted; the Sabbath of the law 
now in force. 



60 SCHWARZENAU 

1876 Church of the Brethren, Minutes of the Annual Meetings 
of the Brethren 1778-1876. Dayton, Ohio: The Christian 
Publishing Association. 427 p. B.M. 

Designed for the promotion of the peace and harmony of 
the Brotherhood. Published by the authority of the An- 
nual Meeting, May 26, 27, 1874. Indexed. 

Miller, Robert Henry, Doctrine of the Brethren Defended: 

The Faith and Practice of the Brethren. Indianapolis : au- 
thor. 404 p. B. 

On the subject of the divinity of Christ and the Holy 
Spirit, immersion as the mode of baptism, Trine Immer- 
sion, the forward action. Feet Washing, the Lord's sup- 
per, the holy kiss, nonconformity or plainness of dress, 
and secret societies. 

Stein, J. W., True Evangelical Obedience as Taught and 

Practiced among the Brethren: German Baptists: Being 
One of Tzventy Reasons for a Change in my Church Rela- 
tions. Danville, Illinois : author. 32 p. B. 

1877 Moore, John Henry, Trine Immersion Traced to the Apos- 
tles. Lanark, Illinois: Brethren at Work Publishing House. 
64 p. M. 

A collection of quotations from modern and ancient au- 
thors, proving that a threefold immersion was the only 
method of baptizing ever practiced by the apostles and 
their Immediate successors. 

Yount, O. F., Universal Restoration of the Wicked from 

Hell: Being Contrary to the Teachings of the Bible and not 
Taught by Ancient Christians in the First or Second Cen- 
tury. Tippecanoe City, Ohio : author. B. 

1878 Bashor, Stephan Henry, The Gospel Hammer and Highway 
Grader: Rubbish Cleaned from the Way of Life. Lanark, 
Illinois: author. 105 p. B. 

Stein, J. W., Nonconformity to the World as Taught and 

Practiced by the Brethren or German Baptists. Lanark, 
Illinois: Brethren at Work Publishing House. 41 p. B. 

1880 Eby, David F., Bible School Echoes and Sacred Hymns. 
Lanark, Illinois :B. P. Co. 112 p. E. 

West, Landon, Close Communion. Dayton, Ohio. H. J. 

Kurtz, printer. 192 p. B.M. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 61 

1881 Stein, J. W., Stein and Ray Debate. Mt. Morris, Illinois: 
Western Book Exchange. 432 p. B.M. 

A church discussion between the Brethren and Baptists, 
by Elder J. W. Stein, Mt. Morris, Illinois, and Dr. D. B. 
Ray, St. Louis, Missouri. 

1882 Church of the Brethren, The Brethren's Hymn Book. Hunt- 
ingdon, Pennsylvania : Quinter & Brumbaugh Brothers. 558 
p. B.E. 

A collection of psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; suited 
to the various kinds of Christian worship, and especially 
designed for and adapted to, the Fraternity of the Breth- 
ren. Compiled by the direction of the Annual Meeting, 
upon the basis of the hymn books formerly used by the 
Brotherhood; words, but no music. 

Miller, Howard, Record of the Faithful. Lewisburgh, Penn- 
sylvania : J. R. Cornelius, printer. 99 p. B.M. 

For the use of the Brethren. A statistical record and a 
complete directory of the Brethren Church, 1881-1882. 
Arranged according to the most authentic information 
obtainable. 

Sayler, Daniel P., German Baptist (or Brethren) Installa- 
tion Service. Westminister, Maryland: author. 16 p. B. 

A compilation of installation services for deacons, min- 
isters, and elders. 

Showalter, Anthony J., Shozvalter's elements of harmony 

and music composition. Dayton, Virginia : Ruebush, Kieffer 
& Co. 91 p. 

1883 Church of the Brethren, Report of the Annual Meetings of 
the Brethren, 1876-1 883. B. 

Heckler, James Y., Ecclesianthem or a Song of the Breth- 
ren, Embracing their History and Doctrine. Lansdale, 
Pennsylvania: A. K. Thomas & Company, printers, author. 
131 p. B. 

A poem with footnotes and explanations, to which are 
added extracts from the Chronicon Ephratonsa. 

Old Order Brethren, The Brethren's Reasons. 53 p. 

A booklet written by a committee representing the Old 
Order Brethren. This pamphlet is a collection of differ- 
ent petitions to Annual Meetings, and is the best state- 
ment we have of why the Old Order Brethren left the 
Church and organized a separate fraternity. 



62 SCHWARZENAU 

1885 Gish, James Rufiis, Babylon and Christ. Mt. Morris, Illi- 
nois: B. P. Co., 79 p. B.M. 

The teachings of Babylon compared with the teachings 
of Christ and His apostles. 

Miller, Daniel Long, Lectures from Europe and Bible Lands. 

Fourth edition: Mt. Morris, Illinois: B. P. Co., 439 p. B.M. 

Notes on travel in Germany, Denmark, Austria, Italy, 
Greece, Asia Minor, and the Holy Land. 

1886 Church of the Brethren, Classified Minutes of the Annual 
Meetings of the Brethren, 1778-1885. Mt. Morris, Illinois 
& Huntingdon, Pennsylvania: B. P. Co. B.M. 

A history of the general councils of the Church from 1778 
to 1885. 

Church of the Brethren, Minutes of the Annual Meetings of 

the Brethren. Also, Supplemental Minutes from 1876-1885 
and Appendix. Dayton, Ohio: Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation. B. 

Published by authority of the Annual Meeting of May 
26 and 27, 1885. 

Mohler, John S., Life on Wheels: The IV ay to Heaven, 

Illustrated by a Railroad. Huntingdon, Pennsylvania: B. P. 
Co. 78 p. B. 

Quinter, James, A Vindication of Trine Immersion as the 

Apostolic Form of Christian Baptism. Huntingdon, Penn- 
sylvania : B. P. H. 369 p. B.M. 

1887 Eshelman, Matthew Mays, Tzvo Sticks: The Lost Tribes of 
Israel Discovered; the Jew and the Israelite not the Same. 
Mt. Morris, Illinois :B. P. Co. 265 p. B. 

Wood, Julia A., My Northern Travels: The Results of 

Faith and Prayer. Ashland, Ohio: B. P. H. 169 p. B. 

Based upon a tour of nine months through Illinois, Indi- 
ana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and 
Canada, with the author's autobiography. 

Hark, Joseph Maximilian, The Unity of the Truth of 
Christianity and Evolution. New York: J. B. Alden. 293 p. 

Mack, Alexander, A Plain View of the Rites and Ordinances 
of the House of God. Reprint, Mt. Morris, Illinois: B. P. 
Co. 89 p. B. 

Arranged in the form of a conversation between a father 
and a son, to which are added "Ground-searching Ques- 
tions," answered by the author. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 63 

1889 Beery, William, Gospel Chimes. Huntingdon, Pennsylvania: 
B. P. Co. 116 p. E. 

A collection of new and standard songs and hymns for 
Sunday schools and religious meetings. 

Church of the Brethren, Report of the Annual Meetings of 

the Brethren, 18S4-1889. B. 

Hark, Joseph Maximilian, Chronicon Ephratense: A His- 
tory of the Community of Seventh Day Baptists at Ephrata, 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, by "Lamech and Agrippa." 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania : S. H. Zahm & Company. B. 

Moomaw, B. C, and others. That Unknown Country 

(Chapter LIT, pp. 947-960) Certain Destruction of the 
Wicked in the fVorld to Come. (B. C. Moomaw, author of 
final chapter) Springfield, Massachusetts: C. A. Nichols. 
960 p. 

1890 Beery, Jesse, Jesse Beery' s Practical System of Colt Train- 
ing. Lima, Ohio: Parmenter Printing Company, 188 p. B. 

The purpose of the book is to give instruction in subduing 
and educating horses that have acquired bad habits. It 
has many pictures, showing appliances and the horse in 
different positions. 

1891 Church of the Brethren, Brethren's Tune and Hymn Book, 
1891 edition; Mt. Morris, Illinois & Huntingdon, Penn- 
sylvania : B. P. Co. 406 p. B.M. 

A compilation of sacred music adapted to all the psalms, 
hymns, and spiritual songs in the Brethren's Hymn Book, 
carefully revised, rearranged and otherwise improved. 
Shaped notes, indexed. 

Newcomer, Martin S., Golden Gleanings. Cedar Rapids, 

Iowa: Daily Republican Printing and Binding House. 301 
p.E. 

Poems and prose extracts from the writings of Martin S. 
Newcomer. 

Quinter, Mary N., lAfe and Sermons of Elder James Quin- 

ter. Mt. Morris, Illinois: B. P. Co. 426 p. B.M. 

Showalter, J. H., Brethren's Tune and Hymn Book. Mt. 

Morris, Illinois & Huntingdon, Pennsylvania: B. P. Co. 
406 p. B. 



64 SCHWARZENAU 

1892 Church of the Brethren, TJic Brethren's Tracts and Pamph- 
lets, Setting Forth tlie Claims of Primitive Christianity, vol. 
1. Dayton, Ohio: Brethren's JBook and Tract Work. 288 
p. B.M.E. 

Churcli of the Brethren, Classified Minutes of the Annual 

Meetings of the Brethren, 1778-1886. Supplement 1886- 
1892. Mt. Morris, Illinois & Huntingdon, Pennsylvania: 
B. P. Co. B. 

A history of the general councils of the Church from 1778 
to 1885. 

Zollers, George D., Thrilling Incidents on Sea and Land: 

The Prodigal's Return. Mt. Morris, Illinois: B. P. H. 400 
p. B. 

1893 Brumbaugh, Henry Boyer, Church Manual. Elgin, Illinois: 
B. P. H. 64 p. E. 

Flory, Jacob Stoner (California), Thrilling Echoes from 

the IVild Frontier. Chicago : Rhodes, McClure. 

A novel. 

Stover, Wilbur Brenner, Charlie Newcomer. 

Teeter, Lewis W., The New Testament Commentary. 2 

vols. Mt. Morris, Illinois: B. P. Co. about 600 p. each. B.M. 

The commentary contains the entire text of the New Tes- 
tament in both versions, w^ith references and marginal 
readings, several maps and a gazetteer giving the mean- 
ing and pronunciation of the proper names. It Is une- 
vaslve and Impartial In Its explanations. It Is a practical 
family reference book. 

Urner, Isaac Newton, Genealogy of the Urner Family and 

Sketch of the Coventry Brethren Church in Chester County, 
Pennsylvania. Philadelphia : Lippincott. 179 p. 

1 894 Baker, Naaman R., Constancy and Other Poems. Mt. Mor- 
ris, Illinois: B. P. H. 177 p. B. 

Contains poems about home life, school life, and the 
Christian life. 

Church of the Brethren, Brethren's Sunday-school Song 

Book. Mt. Morris, Illinois: The General Missionary and 
Tract Committee. 178 p. B. 

For use In Sunday schools, prayer and social meetings. 
Published by authority of the Annual Conference of the 
German Baptist Brethren Church. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 65 

Miller, Daniel Long, The Seven Churches of Asia: Eph- 
esus, Synyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, 
Laodicea. Notes on Travel in Asia Minor. Mt. Morris, 
Illinois: The General Missionary and Tract Committee, 
303 p. 

Jf^anderings in Bible Lands. Mt. Morris, Illinois : 



B. P. Co. 603 p. B.M. 

Notes on travel in Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, 
Nubia, Ethiopia, Cush, and Palestine. 

Miller, Mrs. Daniel Long, Letters to the Young from the 

Old JForld. Mt. Morris, Illinois: B. P. H. 258 p. B. 

A series of letters about the author's travels in Sweden, 
Denmark, Norway, Germany, and the Holy Lands which 
first appeared in the Young Disciple. 

1895 Neher, Mrs. Bertha, Among the Giants. Chicago, U. S. A. 
A. Flanagan & Co. 122 p. 

Arnold, Charles Edward, Normal Studies on the Life and 

Ministry of Christ. McPherson, Kansas: author. 69 p. 
B.M. 

Maps, diagrams, outlines, and harmony; a guide to the 
study of the ministry of Christ. 

Balsbaugh, Christian Hervey and Myers, Tobias Timothy, 

Letters of C. H. Balsbaugh: Glimpses of Jesus. Mt. Morris, 
Illinois: James M. Neff. 431 p. B. 

Autobiography compiled by T. T. Mvers; introduction 
by D. L. Miller. 

Richards, Anne, (compiler) Mementos of Salome St oner 

Myers. Mt. Morris, Illinois: B. P. Co. Pub. by the com- 
piler, Anne Richards. 96 p. B. 

Showalter, J. Henry and Holsinger, George B., Psalms, 

H\mns and Spiritual Songs. Nos. 1 & 2 combined. West 
Milton, Ohio: The J. H. Showalter Co. 246 p. 

Showalter, J. Henry and others. Psalms, Hymns and Spir- 
itual Songs, Numbers 1 , 2, 3. West Milton, Ohio: Showal- 
ter, Holsinger & Perry Bros. 403 p. B. 

For church, Sunday school and all societies of religious 
and musical endeavor. 

Showalter, Anthony J., Showalter' s new Harm,ony and Com- 
position. Dalton, Georgia : The A. J. Showalter Co., 2 vols. 



66 SCHWARZENAU 

1896 Noffsinger, Sadie Bralller, Love's Crowning Jewel. Johns- 
town, Pennsylvania: The Theocrat Publishing House. 30 
p.E. 

Royer, John Grove, Outlines of Discourses Delivered to the 

classes in Mt. Morris College — January, 1896. 11 p. B. 

Showalter, Anthony J., Showalter's New Harmony and 

Composition, Parts I (k II Complete. Dalton, Georgia : The 
A.J. Showalter Co. 112 p. 

Vaniman, Daniel, The Holy Ghost. Mt. Morris, Illinois: 

B. P. Co. 47 p. B. 

Young, Emanuel Sprankle, and others, Genesis to Revela- 
tion. North Manchester, Indiana: The Bible Society. 62 
p. B. 

1897 Beery, Adaline Hohf, Poems of a Decade. Huntingdon, 
Pennsylvania: author. 215 p. E. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, Juniata Bible Lectures. Avil 

Printing Co., Philadelphia: author. 144 p. B.M. 

A series of twelve lectures, mostly on the book of Ruth, 
delivered to the students of the Bible session of Juniata 
College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, February, 1897. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove and Walton, Joseph S., Stories 

of Pennsylvania: School Readings from Pennsylvania His- 
tory. Chicago : American Book Co. 300 p. B. 

McCann, Samuel N., The Lord our Righteousness. Second 

edition. Mt. Morris, Illinois : B. P. H.' 128 p. B.M. 

The purpose of this book is two-fold; first, to bring men 
closer to Christ; second, to aid in building a church in 
Baltimore. 

Opperman, Owen, Brief Sketch of the Brethren of North- 
ern Indiana, (pamphlet) Goshen, Indiana: News Printing 
Co. M. 

Sharp, Solomon Zook, Explanations. Plattsburg, Missouri: 

(no publisher given). 48 p. E. 

The Old Testament as related to the New, and Christ in 
both; the week of passion. Chart No. 1, illustrating the 
Old Testament as related to the New Testament and 
Christ in both. Chart No. 2 illustrating the week of pas- 
sion, including the Lord's supper, crucifixion, passover, 
and resurrection; also Jewish and Roman time. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY (i? 

Flory, Jacob Stoner, Mind Mysteries, phenomena of "Spir- 
itism," "Christian Science" and "Faith-healing " Gospel 
Healing from a Bible standpoint completely Vindicated. 
Mt. Morris, Illinois. 221 p. 

1898 Abbott, James, The Miller and Somner Debate. Mt. Mor- 
ris, Illinois: B. P. H. 533 p. B. 

Debate between Robert H. Miller, representing the Ger- 
man Baptist Church, and Daniel Somner, representing 
the Church of Christ; held at Rockingham, Missouri, 
March 20-28, 1889._ Subjects debated were: The 
Church; Trine Immersion; Feet-washing; the Holy Kiss; 
Lord's Supper. 

Arnold, Charles Edward, Chart of Christ's Journexings. 

Philadelphia: J. D. Wattles & Co. ' 

The harmony is based upon Professor M. B. Riddle's 
outline harmony of the Gospels. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, Liberty Bell Leaflets. 

Eshelman, Matthew Mays, A Model Life: Uncle John 

Metzger on Earth. Mt. Morris, Illinois : B. P. H. 64 p. B.M. 

A biography. 

Leckrone, Quincy, The Great Redemption. North Man- 
chester, Indiana: Bible Student Publishing Co. 286 p. B.M. 

A treatise on various doctrines of the New Testament 
religion as delivered to us by our Lord and Savior Jesus 
Christ and by his inspired apostles, and enjoined upon all 
his followers. 

Miller, Daniel Long, Girdling the Globe. Elgin, Illinois: 

B. P. H. 602 p. B.M. 

From the land of the midnight sun to the golden gate. A 
record of a tour around the world. Profusely illustrated. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Joseph the Ruler. Elgin: B. P. H. 138 

p. B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

Holsinger, George B., and Showalter, J. Flenry, Gospel 

Songs and Hymns Number One. Mt. Morris, Illinois: 
B. P. H., B. 

For use in the Sunday school, prayer meeting, social meet- 
ing, and general song service; shaped notes. 



68 SCHWARZENAU 

Urner, Isaac Newton, History of the Coventry Brethren 

Church in Chester County, Pennsylvania. The Second Old- 
est Brethren Church in America. Philadelphia: printed by 
J. B. Lippincott Co. B.M. 

Wenger, C. M., fVenger Memoirs. South Bend, Indiana: 

C. B. Hibberd. 102 p. 

Autobiography of W. L. Wenger and his wife, Christina 
Studebaker, together with the home history and geneal- 
ogy of their posterity to the present. 

Young, Emanuel Sprankle, The Life of Christ: A Harmony 

of the Four Gospels. Chicago, Illinois: The Bible Student. 
346 p. B.M. 

Contains nine maps tracing all the journeys of Jesus and 
giving all the events in a chronological order and time of 
their occurrence. 

1899 Young, E. S., Bible Outline. B. P. H. Elgin. 96 p. 

Bixler, Marguerite A., (editor) Helpful Hints on Music. 

Hartville, Ohio: author. 136 p. B. 

Contains articles both by the author and other Church of 
the Brethren writers. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, Bishop Christopher Sower of 

Germantown. 31 p. E. 

Presentation of a tablet in memory of Christopher Sower, 
father and son, to the Church of the Brethren in Ger- 
mantown, January 1, 1899. Acceptance of the tablet by 
Reverend George N. Falkenstein. Life and work of 
Bishop Christopher Sower by Martin G. Brumbaugh. 
500 copies privately printed. 

Brumbaugh's Standard First Reader. Philadel- 



phia: Christopher Sower Co. 128 p. B. 

Bru7nbauqlis Standard Second Reader. Philadel 



phia: Christopher Sower Co. 224 p. B. 

Brumbaugh's Standard Third Reader. Philadel- 



phia: Christopher Co. 160 p. B. 

Brumbaugh's Standard Fourth Reader. Philadel- 



phia : Christopher Sower Co. 400 p. B. 

A History of the German Baptist Brethren in 



Europe and America. Elgin: B. P. H. 559 p. B.M.E. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 69 

Church of the Brethren, Revised Minutes of the Annual 

Meetings of the German Baptist Brethren, 1778-1898. Mt. 
Morris, lUinois: B. P. H., B. 

Revised by D. L. Miller, D. E. Price and Daniel Hays, 
Committee appointed by Annual Conference, 1898. 

Ebey, Adam, TJie House that Jack is Building and other 

Essays, (pamphlet) Wawaka, Indiana. 85 p. 

Miller, Robert Henry, The Doctrine of the Brethren De- 
fended, (condensed edition) Elgin: B. P. H. 298 p. B.M. 

The faith and practice of the Brethren proven by the gos- 
pel to be true. 

Moomaw, B. F., The Divinitv of Jesus Christ. Elgin: B. P. 

H. 72 p. B.M. 

The truth maintained by searching the scriptures to be 
received as given by inspired men of God, as revealed to 
us in II Peter 1 :19, 20, and a practical application of them 
to secure the promises of salvation. 

Showalter, Anthony J., The Highway to Heaven, A New 

Collection of Gospel Songs by A. J. Showalter, J. Henry Sho- 
walter, J . M. Bowman, and T. B. Mosley. Dalton, Georgia : 
The A. J. Showalter Co. ; West Milton, Ohio : The J. Henry 
Showalter Co. 224 p. 

1900 Beery, Adaline Hohf, The Rostrum. New York: Fillmore 
Brothers. 40 p. 

A collection of original recitations, dialogues, motion 
songs, etc., for day-schools and Christmas entertainments. 

Church of the Brethren, Brethren's Tracts and Pamphlets. 

Setting Forth the Claims of Primitive Christianitv. vol. 1 
(Gish Fund Edition) Elgin: B. P. H. 332 p. B.M.E. 

Funk, Benjamin, Life and Labors of Elder John Kline the 

Martyr Missionary. Elgin : B. P. H. 480 p. B.M. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Samuel the Judge, vol. 2. Elgin: B. P. 

H. 136 p. B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

Sherrick, Marvin Manam, JVintergreen. Cincinnati : The 

Editor, Publishing Co. 62 p. M.E. 

A small volume of poems produced during his college 
years. 



70 SCHWARZENAU 

Showalter, Anthony J., Our Thankful Songs; a New Collec- 
tion of Choice Gospel Songs for Prayer, Praise and Gospel 
Meetings. Dalton, Georgia : The A. J. Showalter Co. 240 p. 

Showalter, J. Henry and others, The Song Service for Sunday 

Schools and Revival Meetings (No. 1). West Milton, Ohio': 
The J. H. Showalter Co. 112 p. 

Young, Emanuel Sprankle, The Bible Geography. Fourth 

edition; Elgin: Bible Student Co. 127 p. B.M. 

. The Bible Outline. Fifth edition; Elgin: B. P. H. 

92 p. B.M. 

A series of Bible studies. 

The Nezv Testament History. Fourth edition; 



Elgin: Bible Student Co. 126 p. B.M. 

The Old Testament History. Fourth edition; El- 



gin: Bible Student Co. 120 p. B.M. 

Miller, D. L., The Brethren or Dunkers, Elgin, Illinois. 

1901 Church of the Brethren, Brethren Hymn Book, A Collec- 
tion of Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual Songs. Elgin : B. P. H. 
605 p. B.E. 

Suited for song service in Christian worship, for church 
service, social meetings, and Sunday schools. Compiled 
under the direction of the General Conference of the 
German Baptist Brethren Church by the committee. Has 
the words, but no music; well indexed. 

Brethren Hymnal. 1901 edition; Elgin: B. P. H. 



512 p. B.M. 

A collection of psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, suited 
for song service in Christian worship, for church service, 
social meetings and Sunday schools. Both words and mu- 
sic; shaped notes; well indexed. 

The Inglenook Cook Book. Elgin: B. P. H. 212 p. 



(1915, 20th edition) E. 

Choice recipes contributed by Sisters of the Brethren 
Church, subscribers and friends of the Inglenook mag- 
azine. 

Emmert, David, Reminiscences of Juniata College. Quarter 
Century 1 876-1901 . Huntingdon, Pennsylvania: author. 
181 p. B. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 

Falkenstein, George Ness, History of the German Baptist 
Brethren. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: The New Era Print- 
ing Co. 154 p. B. 

Holsinger, Henry R., History of the Tunkers and Brethren 
Church. Lathrop, California: author. 826 p. B. 

Embracing the Church of the Brethren, the Tunkers, the 
Sev^enth-Day German Baptist Church, the German Bap- 
tists, the Old German Baptists, and the Brethren Church, 
including their origin, doctrine, biography, and literature. 

Mohler, J, S., The Resurrection. Elgin, Illinois: B. P. H. 
125 p. B.M. 

Royer, Galen Brown, David the King. vol. 3. Elgin: B. P. 
H. 152 p. B. 

Biographies for the young. 

. Daniel the Fearless, vol. 4. Elgin: B. P. H. 149 

P- B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

. Moses the Leader, vol. 5. Elgin: B. P. H. 154 

P- B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

. Jesus the Savior, Part One. vol. 18. Elgin: B. P. 

H. 151 p. B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

Showalter, Anthony J., Showalter's Gospel Songs, No. 2. 
Dalton, Georgia: A. J. Showalter Co. 96 p. 

. Standard Church Music. Dalton, Georgia: The 

A. J. Showalter Co. 160 p. 

A new and choice collection of the hymns, tunes and gos- 
pel songs which have become so universally popular as to 
be everywhere recognized as standard. For all occasions 
of private and public worship. 

Trout, I. Bennett, Brethren's Lesson Commentary. 1901- 

1906. Elgin: B. P. H., B. 

Lesson commentaries on the International Bible Studies 
for 1901-1906 for the use of teachers and advanced stu- 
dents; adapted for the use of the Church of the Brethren 
by I. B. Trout, Sunday-school editor. Six volumes. 

Wayland, Tohn Walter, Paul, the Herald of the Cross. El- 
gin : B. P. H. 105 p. E. 



72 SCHWARZENAU 

1901-1906 Brethren Lesson Commentary. B. P. H., Elgin, Illi- 
nois. 

1902 Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, h'lfe and Works of Christopher 

Dock. 

Miller, Daniel Long, The Eternal Verities. Eighth edition; 

ElginrB. P. H. 370p. B.M. 

A series of plain arguments showing the abundant evi- 
dences of the truth of the Holy Scriptures, drawn from 
various sources. 

Miller, Howard, (editor) The Inglenook Doctor Book. 

ElginrB. P. H. 156 p. E. 

Choice recipes contributed by Sisters of the Brethren 
Church, subscribers and friends of the Inglenook mag- 
azine. 

Neff, James Monroe, How About Your Bible? An Argu- 
ment and a Plea for Bible Study. Morristown, Tennessee: 
Good Literature Publishing Co. 87 p. 

Rosenberger, Elizabeth Delp, Told at Twilight: Bible Sto- 
ries that Never Grow Old. Elgin : B. P. H. 151 p. E. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Jesus the Savior, Part Two. vol. 18. 

ElginrB. P. H. pp. 153-334. B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

Stover, Wilbur Brenner, /«^/«, // Pro^/^w. ElginrB. P. H. 

339 p. B.M. 

Present conditions; what has been done; new India, or 
what of the future? 

Gibson, D. B., The Lord's Supper. Elgin r Brethren. 76 

p. B. 

Harnly, Mrs. Henry H., A Plistory of the Harnly Family. 

Auburn, Illinois. 64 p. E. 

Contains short biographical sketches of the Harnly, 
Hoerner, Eby, Hershey, Snelder, and related families. 

Myers, Tobias Timothy, Condensed Lectures on Eschatol- 

ogy: the Doctrine of Final Things, (pamphlet) Mt. Mor- 
ris, Illinois. 76 p. B. 

Lectures given to the students of Mt. Morris College 
during the Fourteenth Bible Institute. 

Rosenberger, Elizabeth Delp, The Scarlet Line and other 

Bible Stories. Elgin: B. P. H. 176 p. E, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 7Z 

1903 The Inglenook Doctor Book. Choice recipes contributed by 
sisters of the Brethren church, subscribers, and friends of 
the Inglenook magazine. Elgin, B. P. H. 160 p. 

1904 Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, (editor) The Educational The- 
ory of hnmanuel Kant. vol. 4. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 
cott Co. 309 p. B. 

Emmert, Joseph S., SioniUi, the Land of Perpetual Youth. 

Mt. Morris, Illinois: Kable & Rittenhouse. 221 p. B. 

A romance in rhythmic verse. 

Miller, W. R., and others, The Chicago S. S. Extension. 

Elgin: B. P. H. 160 p. B.M. 

Contains articles written by W. R. Miller, Galen B. 
Royer, Mrs. D. L. Miller, Millard R. Myers, and Ralph 
W. Miller to arouse interest in child evangelism. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Esther the Queen, vol. 7, Elgin: B. 

P. H. 176 p. B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

-. John the Baptist, vol. 8. Elgin: B. P. H. 212 



p. B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

. Elijah the Prophet, vol. 9. Elgin: B. P. H. 237 

p. E. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

1905 Brethren Publishing House, Brief History of the Church of 
the Brethren in China. Founded J 908. Elgin: B. P. H. 70 
p. B. 

Numerous pictures. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, The Making of a Teacher. 

Philadelphia: The Sunday School Times. 351 p. B.M. 

A contribution to some phases of the problem of religious 
education. Could be used in teacher-training courses. 

Cobb, E. M., The Mayville Class Abroad. Elgin: author. 

288 p. B. 

A series of letters written by Mayville high school class 
while abroad; profusely illustrated. 

Gillin, John Lewis (Progressive), and Blackmar, F. W., 

Outlines of Sociology. New York: Macmillan. 586 p. B. 



74 SCHWARZENAU 

Shoup, William J., (Old German Baptist) "Ammi — My 

People." West Alexandria, Ohio: author. 473 p. B. 

An elucidation of the principles of the Christian religion, 
as taught by Christ and his apostles and practiced by the 
people of God in all ages. 

Wayland, John Walter, (editor) Bridgewater College: Its 

Past and Present; A Tribute of the Alumni. Elgin : B. P. H. 
198 p. B.E. 

Zollers, George D., Poetical Musings on Land and Sea. El- 
gin: B. P. H. 160 p. B. 

1906 Church of the Brethren, Report of the Annual Meetings of 
the Brethren, 1902-1906. B. 

Gillin, John Lewis, The Dunkers. New York: author. 240 

p. B. 

A sociological interpretation of the Church of the Breth- 
ren. 

Holsinger, George B., Song Praises for the Sunday School, 

Christian Worker's Meeting, Prayer Meeting, General Song 
Services. Elgin: B. P. H., B. 

Miller, Daniel Long, The Other Half of the Globe. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 398 p. B.'M. 

Sketches and photography from the Southern Hemis- 
phere. This book was written to increase the circulation 
of the Gospel Messenger. The only way to secure a copy 
was to subscribe to the paper. 

Rosenberger, Elizabeth Delp, The Boy Who Would Be 

King. Elgin : B. P. H. 144 p. B. 

Sell, James Arnold, The Lost Brothers of the Alleganies. 

Elgin: B. P. H. 24 p. B. 

From real life, sad but true. 

Sherrick, Marvin Manam, Modern Language Composition. 

1907 Brubaker, John H., and Gibson, D. B., Compiled Minutes 
and History of the Church of the Brethren of the Southern 
District of Illinois. Elgin : B. P. H. 253 p. B. 

Published by the authority of the District Meeting of 
Southern Illinois, held at Astoria, October, 1907. 

Culler, David D., Problems of Pulpit and Platform. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 156 p. B. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 75 

Ellis, Charles Calvert, Lancasterian Schools in Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia: 88 p. 

Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania. 

Gibson, D. B., Compiled Minutes and History of the Church 

of the Brethren of the Southern District of Illinois. Elgin: 
B. P. H. 253 p. B. 

Moore, John H., New Co?nmercial Arithmetic. New 

York: American Book Co. 416 p. M. 

Rosenberger, Isaac J., An Exegesis on Divorce and Remar- 
riage: An Appeal for Reform. Scottdale, Pennsylvania: 
Mennonite Book and Tract Society. 'iG p. B. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Abraham the Faithful, vol. 10. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 181 p. B. 

Bible biographies for the young. 

Sanger, S. F., and Hays, Daniel, The Olive Branch of Peace 

and GoodJVill toMen. Elgin: B. P. H. 232 p. B. 

Anti-war history of the Brethren and Mennonites, the 
peace people of the south, during the civil war, 1861- 
1865 ; many illustrations. 

Showalter, Anthony J., Showalter's Practical Harmony. 

Dalton, Georgia : The A. J- Showalter Co. 188 p. 

Snyder, J. S., A History of Middle Iowa. 

A brief history of the churches. The minutes of the State 
District, before division into Districts. Minutes of Mid- 
dle Iowa, 1870-1907. 

Wayland, John Walter, The German Element in the Shen- 
andoah Fa'lley of Virginia. Charlottesville, Virginia : Michie. 

M. 

. The Political Opinions of Thomas Jefferson. 98 p. 

A convenient manual for students of history, sociology, 
and political science. 

. The Twelve Apostles: JVho They Were and What 

They Did. Elgin:B. P.'H. 252p. B. 

1908 Smith, Olive A., Sunflower Stories and Lullabies. B. P. H. 
Elgin, Illinois. 96 p. 



76 SCHWARZENAU 

Bicentennial Addresses, Two Centuries of the Church of the 

Brethren. Elgin: B. P. H. 396 p. B.M.E. 

Bicentennial addresses at the Annual Conference, held at 
Des Moines, Iowa, June 3-11, 1908. Published by au- 
thority of Conference. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, and others. Training the Teach- 
er. Brethren Edition, Part Three of the Book. Philadelphia: 
The Sunday School Times. 272 p. B.E.M. 

Approved as a first standard course by the committee on 
education. International Sunday School Association. 

Bucher, George, The Garb Taw. Quarryville, Pennsylvania: 

author. 41 p. B. 

An argument on the Pennsylvania Garb Law in relation 
to public school teachers with replies by Reverend F. W. 
McGuire. 

Flory, John Samuel, l/iterary Activity of the German Bap- 
tist Brethren in the Eighteenth Century. Elgin: B. P. H. 
335 p. B.M. 

Thesis (Ph.D.) — University of Virginia. Works, either 
written or printed, by the German Baptists in the 18th 
century: p. 291-327. 

Flory, Jacob Stoner, Love's Sweet Dream Fully Realized 

Through Tloly Matrimony and a Sanctified Home. Pasa- 
dena, California. 174 p. E. 

Miller, Daniel Long; Hays, Daniel, and Price, D. E., Re- 
vised Minutes of the Annual Meetings of the Church of the 
Brethren with Appendix giving Minutes from 1897-1907 . 
Elgin: B. P. H. 90 p. B.M.E. 

Newcomer, Edna A., Bubbles and Other Stories. Elgin: B. 

P. H. 66 p. E. 

Stories for children. 

Royer, John Grove, The Sick, the Dying and the Dead. El- 
gin : B. P. H. 64 p. B. 

Contains Bible readings and words of comfort and con- 
solation for those sorrowing or in distress. 

Yoder, Charles Francis (Brethren) God's Means of Grace. 

Elgin: B. P. H. 631 p. B. 

A discussion of the various helps divinely given as aids to 
Christian character and a plea for fidelity to their scrip- 
tural form and use. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 17 

ZIgler, D. H., History of the Brethren in Virqinia. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 340 p. B.M. 

Chapters on history of the church, church organization, 
slavery, and civil war; biographies. 

1909 Church of the Brethren, Minutes of the Annual Meetings 
of the Church of the Brethren, Containing all Available 
Minutes from 1778-1909. Elgin: B. P. H. 944 p. B.M.E. 

Published by the General Mission Board under Authority 
of Annual Conference, June 1-3, 1909. 

Hoffert, Franklin P., Hufford Family History, The: 1729- 

1909. Indianapolis, Indiana: F. P. Hoffert. 269 p. B. 

Numerous pictures. 

Moomaw, B. C, The Tank Line Unlimited. Ridgewood, 

New Jersey: The Editor Co. 116 p. B. 

An account of the travels of Dr. Seethings. 

Rosenberger, Isaac J., Bible Readings and Bible Studies. 

Elgin:B. P. H. 126 p. B. 

Wayland, John Walter, One of John Brown's Men. Leb- 
anon, Pennsylvania: lip. 

Sketch of the life of John Henry Kagi. 

1910 Brumbaugh, Henry Boyer, Onesimus, The Runaway Slave. 
Elgin: B. P. H. 159 p. B. 

Church of the Brethren, History of the JVaddams Grove 

Church. Elgin: B. P. H. 123 p. B.E. 

A history of the Waddams Grove congregation of the 
Church of the Brethren, in Stephenson and Jo. Daviess 
counties, Illinois and adjoining counties of Wisconsin. 
Including, on account of the Annual Meeting of 1856, 
Enoch Eby's mission to Denmark in 1877 and the min- 
utes of the first three District Meetings of Northern Illi- 
nois held at Waddams Grove in 1862, 1871 and 1882. 

Funk, Jacob, JVar Versus Peace. Elgin: B. P. H. 175 p. B. 

A short treatise on war: its causes, horrors, and cost; 
and peace: its history and means of advancement. 

Gilbert, James Zacchasus, Bulletins on Paleontology, Fossils, 

Pleistocene. Roucho La Brea, Eos Angeles, California: 
Southern California Academy of Sciences, January, 1910. 



7^ SCHWARZENAU 

Moore, John Henry, Our Saturday Night. Elgin: B. P. H. 

192 p. B.M. 

The chapters of this book were written over a period of 
twenty-five years. They represent a collection of the au- 
thor's best writings along moral and religious lines. 

Sharp, Solomon Zook, Nezv Testament Baptism. 

Winger, Otho, The Life of Elder R. H. Miller. Elgin: B. 

P. H. 269 p. B.M. 

1911 Church of the Brethren, The Inglenook Cook Book. New 
and revised edition; Elgin: B. P. H. 416 p. E. 

Choice recipes contributed by sisters of the Church of the 
Brethren, subscribers and friends of the Inglenook mag- 
azine. 

-. Kingdom Songs Number One. Elgin: B. P. H., B. 



Published by authority of the General Mission Board. 
For Sunday school, prayer meeting, Christian worker's 
societies, and all seasons of praise. Round notes; 290 
songs; indexed. 

Secrist, Jacob S., Creation, Time, and Eternity. Elgin: B. 

P. H. 311 p. B. 

A book devoted to the unfolding of the great funda- 
mental truths as found in science, nature and revelation. 
Numerous diagrams and comparative charts for ref- 
erence. 

1912 Bashor, Stephen Henry, The Under Pup: For People Who 
Think. A Twentieth Century Live Wire. Chicago: W. B. 
Conkey Co. 

A series of talks by Bill Sykes LeClaire (Pseudo) — the 
bum — to his dog Mike. Cynicism, philosophy, and com- 
mon horse sense, by Bill himself. 

Beery, Jesse, The Thoroughbreds. Piqua, Ohio: Magee 

Brothers Co. 197 p. 

Clement, John Addison, Standardization of the Schools of 

Kansas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1.30 p. 

Ph.D. thesis, University of Chicago. 1911. 

Culler, Arthur Jerome, Interference and Adaptability : An 

Experimental Study of their Relation with Specific Refer- 
ence to Individual Differences. New York: Science Press, 
80 p. 

Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 79 

Culler, David D., Memories of Old Sandstone. Elgin: B. 

P. H. 204p. B.M. 

Contains stories and pictures concerning the life and ac- 
tivities of Mt. Morris College. 

Heckman, Samuel Brumbaugh, (editor) The Religious Po- 
etry of Alexander Mack, Jr. Elgin : B. P. H. 268 p. B.M. 

Contains much of the literary work of Alexander Mack, 
Jr. 

Kurtz, Daniel Webster, An Outline of the Fundamental 

Doctrines of Faith. Elgin : B. P. H. 6 1 p. B. 

Chapters on the doctrine of God, man, sin, Christ, salva- 
tion, the church, symbols, nonconformity, the Christian 
life, and the scriptures. 

Miller, Daniel Long and Royer, Galen Brown, Some JVho 

Led: Fathers in the Church of the Brethren who have Passed 
Over. Elgin: B. P. H. 223 p. B.M. 

Wayland, John Walter, A History of Rockingham County 

Virginia. Dayton, Virginia : Ruebush-Elkins Co. 466 p. E. 

. Sidney Lanier at Rockingham Springs. 84 p. 

Illustrated with a map and twenty-three engravings from 
photographs. 

1913 Haughtelin, J- D., History of Coon River Congregation. 
Elgin:B. P.H. 105 p. 

— — Hoff, Emanuel Buechley, and others, Training the Sunday 
School Teacher. Elgin : B. P. H. 288 p. 

Karn, Oma, Milly and Mic Kzvie: Servants of the Master. 

Elgin:B. P. H. 95 p. E. 

Written In the style of a novel. 

McCann, Samuel Napoleon, The Beatitudes: Some Chris- 
tian Fundamentals. Elgin: B. P. H. 160 p. B. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, A Study in Incidental Memory. 

New York: The Scientific Press. 108 p. 

Neff, Florence, Biography of Elder James M. Nef and His 

Writijigs. Elgin: B. P. H. 304 p. B. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Thirty-three Years of Missions in the 

Church of the Brethren. Elgin: B. P. H. 482 p. B.M. 

History of Brethren missions; excellent biographies. 



80 SCHWARZENAU 

1914 Beery, Jesse, The Beery System of Horsemanship. Dayton, 
Ohio: The J. C. Ely Printing Co. 8 parts in one volume. 

Fitzwater, Perry Braxton, TJie Church and Modern Prob- 
lems in the Light of the Teaching of First Corinthians. 
Chicago: Bible Institute Colportage Association. 130 p. 

Eikenberry, William Lewis, Elements of General Science. 

In joint authorship with Mr. Caldwell. 

Gillin, John Lewis, History of Poor Relief Legislation in 

Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa: State Historical Society of Iowa. 
404 p. 

. Poor Relief Legislation in lozva. Iowa City, Iowa : 

State Historical Society of Iowa. 37 p. 

Kurtz, Daniel Webster, Nineteen Centuries of the Chris- 
tian Church. Elgin: General Sunday School Board of the 
Church of the Brethren. 197 p. B.M. 

Moherman, Tully S., A History of the Church of the Breth- 
ren, Northeastern Ohio. Elgin: B! P. H. 366 p. B.M. 

Congregations; biographies; pictures. 

Moore, John Henry, The New Testament Doctrines. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 192 p. B.M. 

Mow, A. I., A Brief History of Idaho and Western Mon- 
tana, as Settled and District Organized by the Church of the 
Brethren. Published by the Mission Board of Idaho and 
Western Montana by order of District Meeting. B. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Christian Heroism in Heathen Lands. 

Elgin: B. P. H. 189 p. B.M. 

Contains biographies of leading missionaries in foreign 
lands. 

Stover, Wilbur Brenner, Missions and the Church. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 204 p. B.M. 

Wayland, John Walter, How to Teach American History. 

New York: Macmillan. 349 p. 

A handbook for teachers and students. 

1915 Church of the Brethren, Church of the Brethren in Chicago, 
a Brief History, 1808-1915. Elgin : B. P. H. 70 p. 

Church of the Brethren in China, Hand Book of the Church 

of the Brethren Mission in China, 1915. Printed at the 
Arthington Press, Central China Religious Tract Society, 
Kankow. 16 p. B. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 

Eikenberry, William Lewis and others, Laboratory Manual 

of General Science. 

Eshelman, Matthew Mays, The Open Wa\ Into the Book 

of Revelation. Elgin: B. P. H. 212 p. B. 

God's sevenfold way to consummations or fulfillments of 
prophecies. 

Hackman, Isaac Z., Lessons in Rapid Writing. 

Trout, I. Bennett, The JVorld Scourge. Lanark, Illinois: 

author. 146 p. B. 

A treatise on social conditions. 

Young, Emanuel Sprankle, Acts of the Apostles. Elgin : Bi- 
ble Student Co. 320 p. M.E. ./ 

Zug, S. R., and others. History of the Church of the Breth- %^. 

ren in Eastern Pennsylvania. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: the'/ ^ 
New Era Printing Co., published by the committee appoinfe-iJ"*/ C 
ed by District Conference. 670 p. B. -*-/ / ^P 

1916 Blough, Jerome E., History of the Church of the Brethren ,,^ 
of the Western District of Pennsylvania. Elgin : B. P. H. 
600p. B.M. 

History of congregations; missionary activities; Sunday- 
school activities; biographies 303-371 ; numerous illustra- 
tions. 

Brandt, Harry Alonzo, The JFidowed Earth. Boston: The 

Gorham Press, 41 p. 

A dramatic poem. 

Crisler, Ruby Mildred (Buckman), "Cleaning and Dying," 

"Textile Adulteration" and other Bulletins. 1916-1917. 

Francis, Jacob (Jay) Gottwals, The Church of the Brethren 

(Dunkers) in Lebanon County, vol. 8, no. 3. No publisher 
given, pp. 89-129. E. 

Hays, Daniel, Christianity at the Fountain. Elgin: B. P. H. 

228 p. E. 

Lepley, B. P., Echoes of 1916. No publisher listed. 96 p. B. 

Message to the preachers and elders of the Church of the 
Brethren by a deacon brother. 

Miller, Norman T-, Happy Hours in the Big Outdoors. El- 

gIn:B. P.H. 315p.E. 

A book on nature. 



>. 



82 SCHWARZENAU 

Sell, James Arnold, Tzvilight Poems (No. 1 ) With Notes 

and Texts. Elgin : B. P. H. 105 p. B. 

Sherrick, Marvin Manam, Topical Sermon Notes. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 93 p. 

Taylor, Lydia E., Christian Attire. Elgin: B. P. H. 35 p., 

paper cover. B. 

Address at the Annual Conference of the Church of the 
Brethren at Winona Lake, Indiana, June, 1916. Pub- 
lished by the order of the committee on dress reform, the 
Church of the Brethren. 

1917 Beery, Ray Coppock, Practical CJiild Training. New York: 
The Parents Association; Pleasant Hill, Ohio: Interna- 
tional Academy of Discipline. 4 vols. 

. Practical School Discipline ; Applied Methods. 

Pleasant Hill, Ohio: International Academy of Discipline. 
2 vols. 

Church of the Brethren, Minutes of the Annual Meetings of 

the Brethren from 1778-1876. Also Supplemental Minutes 
from 1877-1917 , and Appendix. Dayton, Ohio: Johnson and 
Watson Co. B. 

Designed for the promotion of the peace and harmony of 
the Brotherhood. Published by authority of the Annual 
Meeting of 1916. J. M. Kimmel, W. M. Kinsey, and 
D. A. Onkst, publishing committee. 

Eshelman, Matthew Mays, History of the Church of the 

Brethren. (Southern California and Arizona) Los Angeles: 
published by authority of District Meeting of Southern Cal- 
ifornia and Arizona. 1 85 p. B. 

A history, of each congregation and biographies of the 
leaders of the District. A full history of La Verne College. 

Hoff, Emanuel Buechley, and others, Training the Sunday 

School Teacher, Book Two. Elgin: B. P. H. 312 p. B.M. 

Published by the General Sunday School Board of the 
Church of the Brethren. 

Lear, John Wallace, The Price of Fashion: A Menace to the 

Nation, (pamphlet) Elgin: B. P. H. 25 p. E. 

Address delivered at the Annual Conference of the 
Church of the Brethren at Wichita, Kansas, June 8, 1917. 

Montgomery, Michael (Old German Baptist), Prophecies 

Unfolded. Neosho, Missouri : H. S. Sturgis, Neosho Times 
Print. 144 p. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 83 

Rarrick, Ralph Glen, History of the Mississinewa Church 

of the Brethren. Elgin: B. P. H. 222 p. B.M. 

Winger, Otho, History of the Church of the Brethren in 

Indiana. Elgin: B. P. H. 479 p. B.M. 

Chapters on early churches, congregations, Indiana by 
Districts, Annual Meetings, missions, education, biogra- 
phies, miscellaneous; index and outline. 

1918 Church of the Brethren, Kingdom Songs Number Two. El- 
gin :B. P. H. 255 p. B. 

Published by the authority of the General Mission Board 
of the Church of the Brethren. Shaped notes; selected 
Bible readings; indexed. 

Gillin, John Lewis, Some Aspects of Feeble-mindedness in 

Wisconsin. Bulletin of University of Wisconsin, serial no. 
940. Madison. 30 p. 

-. Wholesome Citizens and Spare Time. Cleveland, 

Ohio: The Survey Committee of the Cleveland foundation, 
182 p. 

Hawbaker, Claude Clifford and Law, John W., Parcel Post 

Business Methods. Washington, D. C, Government Print- 
ing Office. 20 p. United States Department of Agriculture, 
Farmer's Bulletin No. 922. 

Hawbaker, Claude Clifford and Burmeister, Charles A., 

Marketing Berries by Parcel Post. Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 18 p. U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Bulletin No. 688. 

Ross, Amos W., // Survey of Our India Mission Field. El- 
gin : General Mission Board. B. 

Wieand, Albert Cassel, The Child's Life of Christ, Bible 

Lessons for the Sunday School and the Home. Elgin: B, P. 
H. 286 p. B. 

A handbook for parents and teachers. 

. Foundation Truths. Elgin: B. P. H. 314 p. B. 

Bible lessons for the Sunday school and the home. A 

handbook for teachers and parents. 

Zigler, Samuel Horning, Our Community, Good Citizenship 

in Towns and Cities. Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co. 
240 p. 



84 SCHWARZENAU 

1919 Beery, Ray Coppock, The Nezv Way to Child Training. 
New York : The Parents Association. 227 p. 
In six lessons. Issued in six parts. 

Garber, S. W., Family Tree of Jacob Garber of Augusta 

County, Firginia and His Descendants. Ottumwa, Iowa : 
no publisher listed. 50 p. B. 

General Mission Board, One Year's Visiting with Our Mis- 
sionaries in India. Elgin : B. P. H. 77 p. 

A story in which is concealed the Annual Mission report. 

Gilbert, James Zacchaeus, Fossil Fishes of Southern Cal- 
ifornia. Leland Stanford Publications. 

Hoff, Emanuel Buechley, The Message of the Book of Rev- 
elation. Chicago: the Abingdon Press. 193 p. B.M. 

Kurtz, Daniel Webster, and others, Studies in Doctrine and 

Devotion. Elgin: B. P. H. 299 p. B.M. 

Greenwood, Ella Grace, Research and Investigations as to 

the Kinds, Causes, and Psychological Explanations of Juve- 
nile Delinquency. 

Oberholtzer, Isaiah F^bersole, Seese, Norman A., and Hei- 

sey, Walter |., China, A Challenge to the Church. Elgin : 
B. P. H. 115"p. B. 

Appeals from the Church of the Brethren in China. Pub- 
lished by the General Mission Board. 

Stover, Wilbur Brenner, One Year's Visiting with Our Mis- 
sionaries in India. Elgin: B. P. H. 77 p. B. 

A story in which is concealed the annual report for 1918. 

Tombaugh, J. M. (Brethren) Some Fundamental Christian 

Doctrines. Ashland, Ohio: B. P. Co. 48 p. B. 

A series of articles on Sunday-school topics which first ap- 
peared in The Brethren Evangelist. 

Wayland, John Walter, Christ as a Teacher. Boston: Strat- 
ford Co. 70 p. B. 

. History Stories for Primary Grades. New York : 

Macmillan. 212 p. 

Winger, Otho, The History and Doctrines of the Church of 

the Brethren. Elgin : B. P. H. 320 p. B.M. 

Biography, 244-294; indexed. 

Zigler, Samuel Horning, Course of Study in History and 

Civics for Junior High Schools. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 85 

1919 Kurtz, Daniel W., Studies in Doctrine. Elgin, Illinois. Gen- 
eral Sunday School Board. 110 p. (Taken from text of 
Studies in Doctrine and Devotion by Kurtz, Blough & Ellis.) 

1920 Cobb, E. M., and Lynn, Arthur, Praise the Lord. Dayton, 
Ohio : Cobb & Lynn Co. 190 p. 

A Song book. 

Eikenberry, William Lewis, Laboratory Problems in Botany. 

Garst, Jesse Oscar, History of the Church of the Brethren 

of Southern Ohio. Dayton, Ohio: The Otterbein Press. 605 
p. B.M. 

Church histories; biographies; church activities; index. 

Gilbert, James Zacchreus, and Jordan, David Starr, Fossil 

Fishes of Diatom Beds of Lompoc, California. Leland Stan- 
ford publications. 

Ikenberry, Charles Samuel, The Daily Vacation Church 

School. Elgin: General Sunday School Board. 176 p. B. 

Morris, James Henry, Syllabus of Church History for Class 

Use, Correspondence and Private Study. Butler, Indiana: 
the Higley Printing Co. 105 p. B. 

Myers, Anna B., Patclnvork, A Story of "The Plain Peo- 
ple." Philadelphia : George W. Jacobs & Co. 338 p. B. 

Written in the style of a novel. 

Wayland, John Walter, J History of Virginia for Boys and 

Girls. New York: Macm.illan. 374 p. 

Zigler, Samuel Horning, Introducing Cleveland to its Cit- 
izens. 

1920 Eisenbise, Viola, Primary Folks at Mission Study. Elgin, 
Illinois. General Mission Board. 52 p. 

1921 Bates, Bess Royer, Life of D. L. Miller. Elgin: B. P. H. 
340 p. B.M. 

This biography was started by Galen B. Royer and was 
later taken over by Bess Royer Bates, his daughter and 
the niece of D. L. Miller. Bess Royer Bates' mother was 
D. L. Miller's sister. 

Berkbile, Nora E., Junior Folks at Mission Study — India. 

Elgin: General Mission Board. 103 p. B. 

Beery, William, Stories About Hymns. Elgin : B. P. H. 32 p. 

Selected and compiled by William Beery by the request 
of the General Sunday School Board. 



86 SCHWARZENAU 

Flory, Ezra, Jn Outline of Sunday School Organization and 

Supervision. Elgin: General Sunday School Board. 14 p. 

Gillin, John Lewis, Poverty and Dependency. Their Relief 

and Prevention. New York: the Century Co. 707 p. 

Second edition, revised, 1926; third edition, 1937. 

Horning, Emma, and others. Junior Folks at Mission Study 

— China. Elgin: General Mission Board, 64 p. B. 

Miller, John Ezra, IVith JVilliams, Our Secretary. Elgin: 

General Mission Board, B.M. 

A biography of J. H. B. Williams. 

Moore, James Milton, Simple Life and Spiritual Growth. 

Elgin: B, P. H. 9p. B. 

A small pamphlet. Address delivered at the District Min- 
isterial Conference of Northern Illinois and Wisconsin, 
September 4, 1920. 

Warstler, Anna, True Christian Adornment, (pamphlet) 

Elgin:B. P, H. 6p, B. 

Address delivered at the West Goshen Church, Indiana, 
March 27, 1921. 

Winger, Otho, The Simple Life — Shall We Maintain itf 

(pamphlet) Elgin: B. P. H. 24 p. B. 

Address delivered at the Annual Conference of the Church 
of the Brethren at Hershey, Pennsylvania, June 10, 1921. 

Zerfass, S. G. (Ephrata Society) Souvenir Book of the Eph- 

rata Cloister. Lititz, Pennsylvania : John G. Zook. 84 p. B. 

Complete history from its settlement in 1728 to the pres- 
ent time. Included is the organization of the Ephrata 
Borough and other information of Ephrata connected 
with the clQ,ister, 

1922 Church of the Brethren, Glad Songs. Elgin: B, P, H, 118 
p, M, 

A collection of songs adapted for use in the primary and 
junior departments of the Sunday school. 

, History of the Church of the Brethren of the East- 
ern District of Pennsylvania. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: pub- 
lished by the committee, 670 p. M. 

Hymns of Praise for the Church and Sunday School. 



Elgin :B. P. H. 288 p. B. 

Printed In round and shaped notes; responsive readings; 
indexed. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 87 

. Revised Minutes of the Annual Meetings of the 

Church of the Brethren from 1778-1922. Elgin: B. P. H. 
B.M. 

Revised by Otho Winger, J. H. Longenecker, and George 
L. Studebaker, committee appointed by the Annual Con- 
ference of 1917. 

Craik, Elmer LeRoy, A History of the Church of the Breth- 
ren in Kansas. McPherson, Kansas: author. 397 p. B.M. 

Historical review; congregational histories; biographies; 
indexed. 

Ikenberry, Charles Samuel, Motives and Expression in Reli- 
gious Education. New York : George H. Doran Co. 304 p. B. 

A Manual of worship, hand-work, play and service. Il- 
lustrated. 

Morris, James Henry, Lessons in Church Councils in His- 
tory of Doctrine. 90 p. 

Compiled by teacher and class in History of Doctrine in 
Bethany Biblical Seminary. Typewritten. 

. Thirty-one Years of Organized JVork in Oklaho- 
ma, Texas, New Mexico, and Louisiana by the Church of 
the Brethren from 1891-1922. Butler, Indiana: the Higley 
Printing Co. 531 p. B. 

History of churches, ministerial biographies, district 
meetings, child saving work, maps, tables, graphs, photos, 
etc. Index. 

Rarick, W. Carl, A Manual for High School Bible Study. 
Old Testament Section. Muncle, Indiana: Author. 60 p. 

Rohrer, Perry Lawrence, Recreation in Theory and Prac- 
tice. North Manchester, Indiana: author. 135 p. B. 

Rosenberger, Isaac J., Practical Sermons. Elgin: B. P. H. 
432 p. B. 

For Bible students and home reading. 

Spickler, Henry M., Around the World Without a Cent. 
Chicago: Regan Printing House, author. 205 p. B. 

A travelogue of experiences in going around the world on 
a bicycle: dedicated to the Boy Scouts and Campfire Girls 
of America. 



88 SCHWARZENAU 

1923 Cable, William Arthur, and Sanger, Homer Festus, Educa- 
tional Bluebook and Directory of the Church of the Breth- 
ren, 1708-1923, zvith Biographies. Elgin: General Educa- 
tional Board of the Church of the Brethren. 656 p. B.M. 
Contains a "Who's Who" for the Church of the Brethren. 

Clement, John Addison, Curriculum Making in Secondary 

Schools. New York: Holt. 534 p. M. 

Craik, Elmer LeRoy, Southern Interest in Territorial Kan- 
sas, 1854-1858. Topeka, Kansas. 

Ph.D. thesis. University of Kansas. 

Davis, Charles Ernest, Our Church. Elgin: General Chris- 
tian Worker's Board. 100 p. E. 

A brief history of the Church of the Brethren. 

Flory, John Samuel, Dramas of the Bible. Boston, The 

Stratford Co. 202 p. B.M. 

A literary interpretation of the book of Job and the Song 
of Solomon. 

Hoff, Emauel Buechley, Heckman, Jacob Hugh, and Em- 

mert, Michael Wolfe, Elgin Press Religious Educational 
Texts Training Series. Second Year. Elgin : the Elgin 
Press. 339 p. B.M. 

24 lessons on the Bible; 10 lessons on the program of 
Christian religion; 10 lessons on the devotional life. 

Miller, Minor Cline, Heroic Lives. Elgin: the Elgin Press. 

303 p. B. 

Junior lessons for week-day and vacation schools. Bib- 
liography. 

Moore, John Henry, The Boy and the Man. Elgin : B. P. 

H. 190 p. B. 

The story of a greatly handicapped boy working his way 
up to active manhood. It is a brief autobiography of 
Elder J. H. Moore, originally written for Our Young 
People. 

Sharp, Solomon Zook, The Educational History of the 

Church of the Brethren. Elgin : B. P. H. 383 p. B.M. 

Wayland, John Walter, Scenic and Historical Guide to the 

Shenandoah Valley. Dayton, Virginia : J. K. Ruebush Co. 
100 p. 

A handbook of useful information to tourists and stu- 
dents. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 89 

Wieand, Albert Cassel, Yoder, Joseph J., and Frantz, Ed- 
ward, Pastor's Manual. Elgin : B. P. H. 245 p. B. 

Suggestions, outlines, forms, scripture selections, prayers, 
and hymns for conducting religious services of various 
kinds. Authorized by the General Conference of the 
Church of the Brethren. 

Young, Emanuel Sprankie, Ephesians : Sanctification by 
Faith in Christ. Claremont, California: Bible Student 
League. 181 p. M. 

. Romans: Justification bv Faith in Christ, vol. 1. 



Claremont, California: author. 179 p. B.M. 

Romans: Justification b\ Faith in Christ, vol. 2. 



Claremont, California: author, 166 p. B.M. 

. Thessalonians : Glorification by Faith in Christ. 



Claremont, California. 161 p. M. 

Zigler, Samuel Horning, The Social Studies in the Junior 

High. Cleveland, Ohio: Evangelical Press. 120 p. 

Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania. 

Middle Indiana Brethren Young People's Department, 

fFhat our Y. P. D. is Doing. Pub. by Cabinet, 1923, 40 p. 

1924 Bates, Bess Royer, David's Children. Elgin: B. P. H. 312 
p. B. 

The story of David Miller's children written in the style 
of a novel. 

Ellis, Charles Calvert, The Christian TV ay of Fife for Young 

People. Elgin : the Elgin Press. 109 p. B. 

This is an enlargement of the work included in Studies in 
Doctrine and Devotion by Kurtz, Blough, and Ellis, 
which was published in 1919. 

Garber, Paul, J Source Book on American History. 

Garrett, Margueritte Bixler, and Beery, William, History 

and Message of Hymns. Elgin: the Elgin Press. 242 p. B.E. 

Hoover, William I. T., Religionisms and Christianity. Bos- 
ton : the Stratford Co. B. 

A defense of pure Christianity against the assaults of 
various "isms." 



90 SCHWARZENAU 

Miller, Minor Cline, Conquests for God. Elgin: Elgin 

Press. 291 p. B. 

A teacher's manual for juniors in week day and vacation 
church schools. 

Moomaw, Daniel Crouse (compiler), Christianity Versus 

JVar. Ashland, Ohio: B. P. Co. 346 p. B.M. 

A presentation of scriptural and Christian teaching upon 
the subject of carnal warfare and the taking of human 
life, together with experiences of conscientious objectors 
in the World War. 

Rarick, W. Carl, and Maxam, C. R., A Manual for High 

School Bible Study. Old Testament Section. Muncie, Indi- 
ana, Authors. 68 p. 

A Manual for High School Bible Study. New 



Testament Section. Muncie, Indiana, Authors. 61 p. 

Rodabaugh, Willis P., and Brower, A. H., History of the 
Church of the Brethren in Southern Iowa. Elgin : B. P. H. 
323 p. B. 

Congregational histories; minutes from 1667-1869, and 
1876-1923; numerous illustrations. 

Sell, James Arnold, Myers, George, and Ritchey, William 
S., // History of the Church of the Brethren in the Middle 
District of Pennsxlvania, 17S1-1925. No publisher given. 
561 p. E. 

Stover, Wilbur Brenner, The Family Worship. Mt. Morris, 
Illinois : the College Press. 136 p. B. 

A presentation of the need of family worship. 

. The Great First-work of the Church: Missions. 

Elgin: B. P. H. 112 p. B.M. 

Wayland, John Walter, Art Folio of the Shenandoah Valley. 
Harrisonburg, Virginia: the author. 

"Matchless mountains, historic battlefields, idyllic land- 
scapes, witching waters, celebrated highways, subterra- 
nean fairylands; in Virginia's famous valley. 'The Daugh- 
ter of the Stars,' with historical and descriptive sketches." 
Illustrated. 

. A Bird's-eye View of the Shenandoah Valley. 

Staunton, Virginia: McClure Co. 15 p. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 

Ethics and Citizenship. Staunton, Virginia : the 
McClure Co., Inc. 251 p. E. 

Historic Landmarks of the Shenandoah Valley. 



Harrisonburg, Virginia: the author. 

Beauty and history in the footsteps of Washington, Jack- 
son and Robert E. Lee. Illustrated. 

Zigler, Samuel Horning, Choosing an Occupation; a Voca- 
tional Civics, by Samuel H. Zigler and Helen Jaquette. 
Philadelphia : John C. Winston Co. 344 p. 

Shultz, L. W., // Training Program for the Church School 

Leaders of the Church of the Brethren. Carbon copies. 
Thesis. 

1925 Clement, John Addison, Principles and Practices of Sec- 
ondary Education. New York: The Century Co. M. 

Flory, John Samuel, Builders of the Church of the Breth- 
ren. Elgin: the Elgin Press. B.M. 

Contains biographies of Alexander Mack, John Naas, 
Peter Becker, Christopher Sower, John Garber, Jacob 
Miller, George Wolfe, John Kline, James Quinter, D. L. 
Miller, and Wilbur B. wStover. 

Hyfunal, Church of the Brethren. Elgin: B. P. H. Pub- 
lished by the authority of the General Conference of the 
Church of the Brethren. 527 p. B. 

This book has 499 hymns and 77 pages of responsive 
readings; well indexed. 

Judy, William Lewis, The Dog Encyclopedia. Chicago: 

Judy Publishing Co. 184 p. 

A complete reference work on dogs. 

Moomaw, David Crouse, J Cloud of Witnesses. Ashland, 

OhiorB. P. Co. 180 p. B. 

An expression of the deep convictions of faithful men who 
are opposed to war. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, The Learner and His Attitude. 

Chicago : B. H. Sanborn & Co. 41 8 p. 

The Prevention and Correction of Errors in Arith- 



metic. Chicago: The Plymouth Press. 75 p. 

Noffsinger, John Samuel, .7 Program for Higher Education 
in the Church of the Brethren, with Special Reference to the 
Number and Distribution of Colleges. New York: Teach- 
ers College, Columbia LTnlversity. 80 p. B.M. 



92 SCHWARZENAU 

1925 Haugh, Laura Esther, The Bible Story in Religious Educa- 
tion. Tlie Elgin Press, Elgin, Illinois. 116 p. 

1926 Barnhart, Joseph Oscar, The Deserted Chapel and Other 
Poems. Cerro Gordo, Illinois : author. 66 p. E. 

Cordier, Andrew Wellington, The Reconstruction of South- 
ern France after the Albigensian Crusade. Chicago. 

Ph.D. thesis. University of Chicago. A pamphlet. 

Fitzwater, Perry Braxton, God's Code of Morals Applied 

to the Nezv Daw Chicago : Bible Institute Colportage Asso- 
ciation. 63 p. 

"This little book is substantially a reproduction of lec- 
tures given before the students of Manchester College 
and the Moody Bible Institute, and various churches in 
Ohio and Indiana." 

Flory, Ezra, Bible Book Study. Elgin: The Elgin Press. 144 

p. B. 

Intended for Sunday-school teachers and others interested 
in Bible study. 

Hamilton, William J., Reaching the fVorld Through Amer- 
ica. Hooversville, Pennsylvania : Camp Harmony Training 
School, Inc. 195 p. B. 

A book on missions, arranged for use as a text book for 
young people and adults. 

Helser, Albert D., In Sunny Nigeria; Experiences Among a 

Primitive People in the Interior of North Central Africa. 
New York: Fleming H. Revell Co. 188 p. B.M. 

Hoffert, Andrew T., Prohibition Movement of British India. 

Typewritten. 136 p. 

A.M. thesis. University of Chicago. 

Kurtz, Daniel Webster, The Symphony of Life. Elgin: B. 

P. H. 54 p. B. 

Minnich, Herbert Spenser, Devolution of Missionary Ad- 
ministration in China. (M.A. thesis) Chicago: Northwest- 
ern LJniversIty. 95 p. 

Moyer, Elgin Sylvester, Our Missions Abroad. Elgin : Gen- 
eral Mission Board. 108 p. B.M. 

A brief, simple history of the foreign mission work of the 
Church of the Brethren. Written primarily for use in 
Mission study classes. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 93 

Noffslnger, John Samuel, Correspondence Schools, Lycetnns, 

Chautauquas. New York: the Macmillan Co. 145 p. B. 

Ross, Amos W., Early Davs of P'yara, India. Elgin: B. P. 

H. 86 p. B. 

Experiences among the simple-hearted country people of 
India in the successful endeavor to build a Christian 
church. 

1927 Cable, William Arthur, The Golden Pen. Elgin: B. P. H. 
57 p. B. 

The inscriptions of motherhood "on the tablets of the 
heart." From an address delivered by the author on 
Mother's Day, May 9, 1926, at the First Christian 
Church of Tucson, Arizona. 

¥\ovy^^zY?i.^ Character Stories. Elgin : the Elgin Press, 132 

p. B.M. 

A collection of character stories for Sunday-school chil- 
dren. 

Judy, William Lewis, Kennel Building and Plans. Chicago: 

Judy Publishing Co. 20 p. 

1929, Second edition, 56 p.; 1934, third edition, 60 p. 

. Men and Things. Chicago: Judy Publishing Co. 

117p.B. 

. Training the Dog ; Complete Instructions Suitable 

for all Breeds, with Chapters on Feeding, Housing and Care. 
Chicago: Judy Publishing Co. 1 1 1 p. 

1929, second edition, revised, 123 p. 1932, third edition, 
revised and enlarged. 121 p. 1934, fourth edition, re- 
vised and enlarged, 144 p. 

McClain, Alva J., (Brethren), Outline and Argument of 

the Epistle of Paul to the Romans. 30 p. Paper covering. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, Education of Young Children 

Through Celehratinq Their Successes. Washington : Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. (LI. S. Bureau of Education) City 
School Leaflet No. 26. 13 p. 

Sell, James Arnold, Twilight Poems, Number 2. With 

Notes and Texts. Altoona, Pennsylvania : Mirror Printing 
Co. 151 p. B. 

Wayland, John Walter, A History of Shenandoah County, 

Virginia, Strasburg, Virginia : Shenandoah Publishing 
House. 874 p. 



94 SCHWARZENAU 



-. Rambles in Europe. Strasburg, Virginia: Shenan- 



doah I^Liblishing House. 233 p. 

1928 Ellis, Charles Calvert, The Religion of Religious Psychol- 
ogy. Los Angeles, California : The Biola Book Room. 60 p. 

Gillon, John Lewis, and others, Social Problems. New York : 

The Century Co. 534 p. (Revised edition, 1932) 

Hoff, John Luke, Musings of a JFanderer. McPherson, 

Kansas: the Democrat-Opinion Press. 93 p. B.M. 

A book of poems. 

Meyer, Jacob Gibble, Principles of Secondary Education. 

Ann Arbor, Michigan. Mimeographed and Printed by Ed- 
wards Brothers. 211 p. 

Small Colleges and Teachers Training. Blooming- 



ton, Illinois: Public School Publishing Co. 

Wayland, John Walter, Whispers of the Hills. New Mar- 
ket, Virginia: the Henkel Press, Inc. 104 p. E. 

A book of poems. 

Winger, Otho, Letters from Foreign Lands to the Home 

Folks. Elgin:B. P. H. 366 p. B.M. 

The result of a trip abroad in 1928. 

1929 Beshore, Edith Leona, Persuasive Speaking. Chicago: Judy 
Publishing Co. 126 p. B. 

A presentation of instruction in voice, mind and body 
development for pleasing, effective speech. 

Burkholder, Wealthy A., Some Things I Remember. A 

Story of My Life. Rockton, Pennsylvania: Keystone Print- 
ing Office. 24 p. B. 

Autobiography of Wealthy A. Burkholder; paper cov- 
ering. 

Flory, John Samuel, The John Wampler Family. Bridge- 
water, Virginia. 94 p. 

Gillett, E. C, Pioneering. Elgin : B. P. H. 2 1 8 p. E. 

Henry, Jerry Maurice, The Heart of the Crimson Cross, 

Boston: the Stratford Co. 304 p. B.M. 

A novel. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 95 

Hoffert, Andrew T., The Franklin Grove Church of the 

Brethren, Franklin Grove, Illinois. 48 p. (typewritten man- 
uscript.) B. 

A church and community survey conducted at the request 
of the District Board of Administration of the Northern 
District of Illinois and Wisconsin. 

Miller, Robert Henry, Jr., The Lord's Prayer. Elgin: B. P. 

H. 78 p. B.M. 

Moore, John Henry, Some Brethren Pathfinders. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 366 p. B.M. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, AIY JVork Book in Arithmetic, by 

Garry Cleveland Myers and Caroline Elizabeth Myers. 
Cleveland, Ohio: The Harter Publishing Co. (The Har- 
ter work books. Arithmetic series.) 

Welch, Myra Brooks, The Years Between and Other Po- 
ems. Pomona, California: Edgar Rothrock & Co. 50 p. E. 

A book of poems. 

1930 Beshore, Edith Leona, Be Your Own Dietitian. Los An- 
geles: The Beshore Publishing Co. 82 p. 

Health by protective and corrective eating. 

Brandt, Harry Alonzo, Conquest of Peace. Elgin: the El- 
gin Press. 156 p. B. 

A very readable book on the challenge and the urgency of 
peace. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, Memorial Bulletin to Martin 

Grove Brumbaugh. Huntingdon, Pennsylvania: Juniata 
College Bulletin, March 18, 1930. 20 p. B. 

Funeral services of Martin Grove Brumbaugh, President 
of Juniata College. 

Cable, William Arthur, Cultural and Scientific Speech Edu- 
cation Today. Edited by W. Arthur Cable. Boston: Ex- 
pression Co. 206 p. 

"The addresses were delivered or were cast from speech- 
es given at the third annual convention of the Western 
Association of teachers of speech — 1929." 

Church of the Brethren, Ftdl Report of the Proceedings of 

the Annual Conference of the Church of the Brethren, 1890- 
1930. 9 vols. Elgin B. P. H. B.M. 

. Minutes of the Annual Meetings of the Church of 

the Brethren, 1910-1930. B. 



96 SCHWARZENAU 

Clement, John Addison, Co-operative Supervision in Grades 

Seven to Tzvelve. By John Addison Clement and James 
Homer Clement. New York: The Century Co. 452 p. 

Culler, xA.rthur J., Creative Religions Literature. New York: 

Macmillan Co. 34 p. B. 

A literary study of the Bible, including folk songs, myths 
and legends, the short story, the parables, poetry, letters, 
and essays; indexed. 

Garber, John A., Development of Higher Education in the 

Church of the Brethren. (In Bridgewater-Daleville College 
Bulletin, December, 1930) Bridgewater, Virginia. 20 p. 
B.M. 

This article contains a brief history of each Brethren 
College. 

Judy, William Lewis, Principles of Dog Breeding. Chicago : 

Judy Publishing Co. 118 p. 

A presentation of heredity in dogs, the anatomy and 
functioning of the sexual organs, and the selection of 
bloodlines. Second edition, same as above except these 
words following, "and the interpretation of pedegrees." 
142 p. 

General Ministerial Board, Handbook of Ministerial Deci- 
sions, Church of the Brethren. Elgin: General Ministerial 
Board. 39 p. B. 

Hamer, Oliver Stuart, The Master Farmers of America and 

Their Education. Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa. 
151 p. 

GiUett, E. C, Pure Religion. Elgin : B. P. H. 253 p. E. 

Helser, Albert D., African Stories. New York: Fleming 

H. Revell Co. 223 p. B.M. 

Foreword by Franz Boas; illustrated by Oliver W. Wil- 
son; contains folk-lore tales of Nigeria. 

Judy, William Lewis, A Soldier's Diarv. Chicago: Judy 

Publishing Co. 216 p. B. 

Montgomery, Michael, (Old German Baptist) Hid Treas- 
ure, Costly Pearl, Drag Net. Exposition of the Seventieth 
Week. Eternal Redemption. Distinction Between the Sev- 
enth Day and the Lord's Day. Fairview, Missouri: These 
booklets were published by the author. B. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 97 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, The Modern Parent: a Practical 

Guide to Everx Day Problems. New York: Greenberg Co. 

'350 p. 

Wayland, John Walter, Chapters in Church History. New 

York. Revell. 154 p. 

. Fifty years of Educational Endeavor; Bridgewater 

College, 1880-1930; Daleville College: 1890-1930. by a 
staff of Alumni. Staunton, Virginia : McClure Co. 414 p. 

. The Master Sculptor. New York: Normal Pub- 
lishing Co., Inc. 19 p. 

A brief treatise on erosion and its wondrous effects in the 
Shenandoah Valley. 

. The Pathfinder of the Seas ; the Life of Matthew 

Fontaine Maury. Richmond, Virginia: Garrett & Massie 
Inc. 191 p. 

. Virginia Valley Records. Strasburg, Virginia : 

Shenandoah Publishing House, Inc. 491 p. E. 

Geographical and historical materials of Rockingham 
County, Virginia and related regions. 

Yoder, Charles Francis (Brethren), The Argentine Mis- 
sion Field. Ashland, Ohio: B. P. Co. 163 p. B. 

1931 Beery, Ray Coppock, Practical Child Guidance. Atlanta, 
Georgia: National Child Research Clinic. 10 vols. 

Cordier, Andrew Wellington, European Union and the 

League of Nations. Geneva : Geneva Research Commission. 
27 p. M. 

Gillin, John Lewis, Training the Criminal; Adventures in 

Penology. New York: Macmillan. 318 p. 

Miller, John Ezra, JVilhiir B. Stover, Pioneer Missionary. 

Elgin:B. P. H. 208p. B.M. 

The biography of a Brethren missionary to India. 

Morris, Mary Winey, Prophecy, What the World is Com- 
ing to in the Light of the Book of Revelation. Elgin: B. P. 
H. 351 p. B.M. 

Moyer, Elgin Sylvester, Missions in the Church of the Breth- 
ren, Their Development and Effect upon the Denomination. 
Elgin :B. P. H. 301 p. B.M. 

A dissertation presented for the degree of doctor of 
philosophy in Yale LIniversIty. 



98 SCHWARZENAU 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, Building Personality in Children. 

New York : Greenberg & Co. 360 p. 

, Developing Personality in the Child at School; 

Practical Mental Hygiene for Educators. New York: 
Greenberg. 375 p. 

Way land, John Walter, J History of Virginia for Boys and 

Girls. New York: Macmillan. 432 p. 

Revised edition, with helps for teachers and pupils, by 
Alice E. Carter. 

West, Russell Green, Souvenir Year Book, Batavia Church 

of the Brethren. Batavia, Illinois: author. B. 

1932 Cable, William Arthur, J Program of Speech Education in 
a Democracy. Boston: Expression Co. 595 p. 

Compiled and edited by W. Arthur Cable. 53 addresses 
and papers. 

Clement, John Addison, Public Junior College Legislation 

in the United States, by John Addison Clement and Vivian 
Thomas Smith. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois. 
61 p. 

Cordler, Andrew Wellington, Methods in the Teaching of 

History. North Manchester, Indiana: mimeographed copy. 
M. 

Dover, Frederick Denton, Cultural Changes in the Church 

of the Brethren. ElgIn:B. P. H. 256 p. B.M. 

Historical Sketch of the Church of the Brethren; breth- 
ren publications, doctrines, education, ministry, families, 
cultural trends; appendix; bibliography; index. Ph.D. 
thesis. 

Flory, John Samuel, Flashlights from History. Elgin: B. 

P. H. l91 p. B.M. 

A brief study in the social development of the Church of 
the Brethren. 

Gribble, Florence Newberry, (Brethren) Undaunted Hope. 

Life of Jaynes Gribble. Ashland, Ohio: B. P. Co., published 
by the Foreign Missionary Society of the Brethren Church. 
B. 

Heckman, Jacob Hugh, The Teacher's appreciation of the 

Old Testament. Elgin: The Elgin Press. B. 

Religious Education text, training series. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 

Judy, William Lewis, Handy Dog Booklet Series. Chicago : 

Judy Publishing Co. 

Miller, James Quinter, and Hartshorne, Hugh, Community 

Organization in Religious Education. New Haven: Yale 
University Press. 250 p. B. 

Miller, Minor Cline, The Lost Bible. Strasburg, Virginia: 

Shenandoah Publishing House. 196 p. 

Mow, Baxter Merrill, The Development of Islam in 

Gujarat. 160 p. Typewritten form. A.M. thesis, Univer- 
sity of Chicago. 

Mow, Anetta Cordula, The Adaptation of Primarv Mis- 
sionary Education to the Needs of the Indian Village. 104 p. 

With special reference to Baroda State. Typewritten 
form A.M. thesis, University of Chicago. 

Shull, William Russell, Revolution in Economic Life. 206 

p. Elgin : The Elgin Press. 

Wieand, Albert Cassel, The Prayer Life and Teachings of 

Jesus. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co. 172 p. B.M. 

A very helpful study guide on the subject of prayer. 

1933 Frantz, Ira Henry, The Eleventh Mayor: A Peace Play. 
Elgin: Board of Christian Education. 47 p. M. 

. What Shall it Profit f Elgin: B. P. H. 42 p. M. 



A temperance play. 

Gillin, John Lewis (Brethren), Social Pathology. New 

York: The Century Co. 612 p. (Revised 1939) ' 

Judy, William Lewis, The Chow Chow. Chicago : Judy 

Publishing Co. 185 p. 

A complete presentation of the history, breeding, care, 
training, exhibiting and selling of this oriental breed of 
dog. Illustrated. 

Winger, Otho, The Frances Slocum Trail (pamphlet) North 

Manchester, Indiana: author. 20 p. B.M. 

Nininger, Harvey H., Our Stone-pelted Planet. A book a- 

bout Meteors and Meteorites. Boston and New York, 
Houghton Miffhn Co. 237 p. 

1934 Barnhart, Wilbur S., and Maxwell, Leslie B., Social Busi- 
ness Arithmetic, with Introduction to Business; Complete 
Course. New York: Mentzer Bush. 637 p. M. 



100 SCHWARZENAU 

Bauman, Louis Sylvester, (Brethren) The Faith Once for 

AH Delivered unto the Saints. Long Beach, California: 
author. 80 p. Paper covering. 

. God and Gog; or the Coming Meet Between Jii- 

dah's Lion and Russia's Bear. Long Beach, California: A. 
S. Pearce. 40 p. 

. Shirts and Sheets : or Anti-Semitism, a Present Day 

Sign of the First Magnitude. Long Beach, California: A. 
S. Pearce. 52 p. 

Fitzwater, Perry Braxton, JVhy God Became Man. Chi- 
cago: Bible Institute Colportage Association. 79 p. 

Hamer, Oliver Stuart, and Hamer, Anna M., Our Farm 

Babies. Bloomington, Illinois : McKnight and McKnight. 
135 p. 

Other Farm Babies. Bloomington, Illinois: Mc- 



Knight and McKnight. 136 p. 

Harsh, Mary Hykes, Four Religious Dramas. Petersburg, 
West Virginia : the Crant County Press, author. 24 p. B. 
Suitable for churches with limited dramatic equipment. 
Dramas: Come Out of the Beaten Path; Profit by Los- 
ing; A Hymnic Drama ; the Living Bible. 

Helser, Albert D., The Education of Primitive People. 
New York: Revell. 316 p. M. 
Thesis—Ph.D. 

Kinsey, William, // History of Jacob Kinsey and His De- 
scendants. Union Bridge, Maryland; the Pilot Publishing- 
Co. 302 p. B. 

-. The Rite of Baptism; a Catechism on Christian 



Baptism with other Helps and Suggestions for those who 
are Beginning the Christian JVay of Life. Union Bridge, 
Maryland: the Pilot Publishing Co. 26 p. 

Miller, Robert H., The Life Portrayed in the Sermon on the 
Mount. Boston: W. A. Wilde Co. 215 p. B.M. 

This book is for those whose chief interest in the New 
Testament is its application to modern life. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, / Am Growing Up — For Supple- 
mentary Reading and Character Training in Intermediate 
Grades. Delaware, Ohio: School and College Service. 2 
vols, in 1. Book 1 : Conduct, Book 2: Manners. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 101 

. Helping the Child Enjoy Food; Preventing and 

Correcting Eating Problems. Chicago : Child Develop- 
ment Foundation. 10 p. Parent-Child pamphlet. No. 2. 

. The Land of Nod; Training the Child to Sleep 

fVell. Chicago: Child Development Foundation. 12 p. 
Parent-Child pamphlet, No. 3. 

The Modern Family. New York : Greenberg. 



228 p. 

Ober, Henry Kulp, Child Rights. (A Plea for Childhood) 

Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania : author. 47 p. B. 

Rohrer, Perry Lawrence, Let's Stay Married. Elgin: The 

Elgin Press. 160 p. B. 

This book is based on the case studies of over 700 per- 
sons and is designed to give aid in understanding the 
causes of maladjustments between husbands and wives. 

Winger, Otho, The Ke Na Po Co Mo Co; Eel River, the 

Home of Little Turtle, (pamphlet) North Manchester, 
Indiana; author. 28 p. B.M. 

1935 Barnhart, Wilbur S. and Maxwell, Leslie B., Social-Business 
Arithmetic with Introduction to Business; Brief Course. 
New York: Menzer, Bush and Co. 372 p. 

Bonsack, Charles D., Sharing Observations with the Home 

Church. Elgin:B. P. H. 287 p. B. 

The observations of the author while on his visit to the 
foreign mission stations of the Church of the Brethren 
— first appeared in the Gospel Messenger. 

Gillin, John Lewis, Crimnology and Penology. Revised edi- 
tion. New York : Appleton-Century. 632 p. 

McLain, Alva (Grace Brethren), Bible Truths. Ashland, 

Ohio. 75 p. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, Learning to be Likable: A Brief 

Discussion of Important Personal Problems. Columbus, 
Ohio. School and College Service. 128 p. 

Rarick, W. Carl, Character Education Through Bible 

Study ; A Course Planned for use in High School. Indianap- 
olis : Levey Printing Co. 

Shultz, Lawrence W., (compiler) Minutes of the Annual 

Conference of the Church of the Brethren on Peace and 
War. Elgin: Board of Christian Education, mimeographed 
copy. 70 p. B.M. 



102 SCHWARZENAU 

Winger, Otho, A Brief Centennial History of fVabash 

Count\, 1S35-1935. North Manchester, Indiana; author. 
44 p. B. 

. The Last of the Miamis. (pamphlet) North Man- 
chester, Indiana; author. 40 p. B.M. 

Eikenberry, A. A., The Bearing of Some Modern Psycho- 
logical Trends Upon the Problem of IVar. Elgin, lUinois. 
Board of Christian Education. 16 p. Pamphlet. 

Miller, R. H., The Christian Philosophy of Peace. Elgin, 

Illinois. Board of Christian Education. 15 p. Pamphlet. 

Flory, John S. (compiler). The Church of the Brethren on 

the Liquor Question as recorded in annual conference Deci- 
sions 1771-1935. Board of Christian Education, Elgin, Illi- 
nois. 31 p. 

Hoff, John Luke, Phony Phonetics. American Printing 

House, Chicago, Illinois. 80 p. 

1936 Henry, Jerry Maurice, History of the Church of the Breth- 
ren in Maryland. Elgin: B. P. H. 536 p. B. 

Colonial background; the congregations, pioneers, dis- 
tricts, annual meetings, slavery and civil war, church 
activities, biographies; index. Ph.D. thesis. 

Hoff, Ernest Gockley, Exploring the Bible; Learning to 

Live. Elgin: the Elgin Press. 80 p. B. 

Published for the Interdenominational Committee on Co- 
operative Publication of Adult Texts. 

Judy, William Lewis, Dog Encyclopedia; a Complete Ref- 
erence work on dogs; presenting the origin, development, 
history and standards of all breeds of the world; also all 
general subjects concerning the care, breeding, kenneling, 
training and exhibiting of the dog; together with interesting 
data and lore of the dog throughout the centuries. Chicago: 
Judy Publishing Co. 426 p. Illustrated, (Including plans). 

Hamer, Oliver Stuart, and others, Personal Problems in 

School Management. Newson and Co. 384 p. 

Kurtz, Daniel Webster, The Gospel of Jesus: The Good 

News of Our Lord. Elgin : the Elgin Press. 173 p. B. 

Miller, Minor Cllne, A Decade of Progress; the Study of 

the Development of zveek day Religious Education in Vir- 
ginia. 1925-1935. Bridgewater, Virginia: Virginia Coun- 
cil of Religious Education, Inc. 36 p. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 103 

Meyer, Jacob Gibble, and Hamer, Oliver Stuart, and Gris- 

so, Lillian. A Trip to the Valley of the Nile. Chicago: 
Follett Publishing Co. 43 p. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, Training the Toddler in Safety. 

New York: Greenberg. 29 p. 

Winger, Otho, The Lost Sister Among the Miamis. (bound 

pamphlet) Elgin: the Elgin Press. 150 p. B.M. 

Simms, Marion, The Bible in Arnerica. New York, Wilson- 

Erickson. (The Saur German Bible, p. 120-124.) 

1937 Board of Christian Education, Young People's Handbook. 
Elgin: B. P. H. B. 

A collection of mimeographed materials, giving sugges- 
tions for young people's programs, socials, hobbles, lead- 
ership, etc. 

Church of the Brethren, Minutes of the Annual Meetings 

of the Church of the Brethren, 1910-1937. B. 

Crumpacker, Frank H., Brethren in China and other China 

Missionaries. Edited by Elgin S. Moyer, Bethany Biblical 
Seminary, published by the B. P. H., Elgin, 96 p. B. 

This book forms the basis for a good study course on the 
history of the mission work by the Church of the Breth- 
ren in China. 

Garber, Clark McKinley, (compiler and editor) The Gar- 

ber Historical and Genealogical Record, vol. 1, no. 1. No 
publisher listed. 1 1 1 p. E. 

Judy, William Lewis, Training the Dog; a Presentation of 

the Mentalits of the dog with Instructions suitable for train- 
ing all breeds for all purposes, including also field and out- 
door work. Chicago: Judy Publishing Co. 160 p. 

Kurtz, Mrs. D. W., The Minister's Wife. Elgin: B. P. H. 

47 p. B. 

Slabaugh, Warren W., Writing of the Christian Scriptures. 

Elgin: the Elgin Press. 136 p. B. 

The Elgin Press Religious Education Texts; Training 
Series. Gives the historical background, date, authorship, 
and purpose of writing of the New Testament Scriptures. 

Wayland, John Walter, Historic Homes of Northern Vir- 
ginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. Staun- 
ton, Virginia: McClure Co. 625 p. 



104 SCHWARZENAU 

Brandt, H. A., The Praying Tree. Elgin, Illinois, 1937, 

12 p. 

Slabaugh, W. W., The Christian Doctrines of Peace in a 

JFar-threatening World. Elgin, Illinois. Board of Chris- 
tian Education. 16 p. Pamphlet. 

1938 Bauman, Louis Sylvester (Grace Brethren), "The Time of 
Jacob's Trouble." Long Beach, California: 127 p. 

An answer to the question of a little Jewish girl — "Tell 
me father, what makes folks hate me so?" (3rd edition 
revised, 1939, 132 p.) 

Bittinger, Desmond W., Soudan's Second Sunup. Elgin: the 

Elgin Press. 254 p. B. 

The book tells of the author's experiences with the people 
of Africa. It reveals the past and present of the Soudan. 

Board of Christian Education, Southern District of Penn- 
sylvania, Studies in the Doctrine of Peace and Suggestions 
for their Use. Elgin : Board of Christian Education. 80 p. B. 

Divided into chapters for study classes with questions and 
a bibliography at the end of each chapter. 

Bowman, Warren Daniel, Home Builders of Tomorrow. 

Elgin: The Elgin Press. 123 p. B.M. 

A popular book on the problems of courtship and mar- 
riage. 

Brandt, Harry Alonzo, Christopher Sower and Son. Elgin : 

B. P. H. 135 p. B. 

The story of two pioneers in American printing who lived 
up to their motto: "To the honor of God and my neigh- 
bor's good." Serial publication in Our Young People, 
January 1 to March 19, 1938. Revised and published in 
book form April, 1938. 

Garber, Clark McKinley, (editor) The Garber Historical 

and Genealogical Record, vol. 1, no. 2. Mansfield, Ohio: 
Richland Printing Co. pp. 112-219. E. 

Meyer, Jacob Gibble, Hamer, Oliver Stuart, and Grisso, 

Lillian, Directed Activities for the Old World and Its Gifts. 
Chicago: Follett Publishing Co. 128 p. 

The Old World and Its Gifts. Chicago : Follett 



Publishing Co, 552 p 



ing Co. 120 p 



Unified Social Studies. Chicago : Follett Publish- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 

Moyer, Elgin Sylvester, China at Our Door. 178 p. B. 

A brief history of the Chinese Mission work in the 
Church of the Brethren written for the 30th anniversary 
of the founding of Chinese Missions in the Church of the 
Brethren. Typewritten. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, Books and Babies, by Garry 

Cleveland Myers and Clarence Wesley Summer. Chicago: 
A. C. McCIure and Co. 116 p. 

West, Dan, The Coming Brotherhood. Elgin: The Elgin 

Press. 95 p. B.M. 

A look to the future for the Church of the Brethren. 

Miller, John Ezra, The Sower Printers. Elgin, Illinois. 

General Board. Pamphlet. 8 p. 

Nye, Harry Hess (compiler), Brethren Ideals in Home 

Building (source materials) as recorded in Annual Confer- 
ence decisions. Board of Christian Education, Elgin, Illi- 
nois. 64 p. 

1939 Bittinger, Desmond, The Land of the Monkey Bread Tree. 
Elgin: General Mission Board. 45 p. E. 

A small book of missionary experiences in the province 
of Nigeria, West Africa. 

Judy, William Lewis, Lazvs about Dogs. Chicago: Judy 

Publishing Co. 14 p. 

Muir, Gladdys Esther, Settlement of the Brethren on the 

Pacific Slope. . . . A Study in Colonization. Elgin : B. P. 
H. 469 p. B. 

Authorized by the Church of the Brethren of the District 
of Southern California and Arizona. 

Tinkle, William John, Fundamentals of Zoology. Grand 

Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House. 492 p. B. 

A good textbook on Zoology; numerous pictures and illus- 
trations. 

Winger, Otho, The Potazvatomi Indians. Elgin: The Elgin 

Press. 159 p. 'M. 

Ziegler, Edward Krusen, A Book of Worship for Village 

Churches. New York: Agricultural Missions Foundation, 
Inc. 130 p. B. 

Mow, Anetta C, World-wide Missions in the Church of the 

Brethren. IQ 39-1 9 39. Elgin, Illinois. The General Boards. 
14 p. Pamphlet. 



106 SCHWARZENAU 

Adams, Nerval, and Bandow, Esther, A Study Guide for 

Applied Biology. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, 
Nlinnesota. 1 1 1 p. iManual. 

1940 Bauman, Louis Sylvester (Grace Brethren), Light from 
Bible Prophecy as related to the Present Crisis. New York: 
Revell. 169 p.' 

Board of Christian Education, Youth Action Guide. Elgin: 

B. P. H. 45 p. B. 

■ Garber, Clark McKInley, Stories and Legends of the Bering 

Strait Eskimos. 260 p. 

Helser, Albert David, The Glory of the Impossible; Dem- 
onstrations of Divine Pozver in the Sudan. New York: 
Evangelical Publishers, 144 p. 

Judy, William Lewis, Care of the Dog; a Presentation of 

the Care, Housing, Feeding, Grooming, Health, and Gen- 
eral Management of the Dog, Particularly for Layman Dog 
Owner. Chicago: Judy Publishing Co. 96 p. 

Shull, Merlin C, and Miller, T- E., Minister's Manual, 

Church of the Brethren. Elgin : B. P. H. 160 p. B. 

Authorized and copyrighted by the General Ministerial 
Board, Church of the Brethren. 

Wayland, John Walter, Stonezvall Jackson's Way, Route, 

Method, Achievement. Staunton, Virginia: McClure Com- 
pany. 244 p. 

Winger, Otho, Memories of Manchester. Elgin: B. P. H. 

230 p. M.E. 

Contains the memories and experiences of the author over 
a period of 43 years as he was connected with Manchester 
College. 

Bowman, Paul H., Creative Citizenship. Elgin, Illinois. 

For Brethren Service and Advisory Committees. Pamphlet. 
8 p. 

WIeand, Albert C, The Prince of Peace, According to the 

Example and Teachinqs of Christ. Elgin, Illinois. Author- 
ized by the Brethren Service Committee. Pamphlet. 20 p. 

Rumball-Petre, Edwin Alfred Robert, America's First Bi- 
bles, zvith a census of 555 extant Bibles. Portland, Maine. 
The Southworth Antheosen Press, 1940. (Chapters I-IV 
In Saur Bibles.) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 107 

1941 Bittinger, Desmond, An Educational Experience in North- 
ern Nigeria and Its Cultural Setting : Black and fVhite. El- 
gin: B. P. H. 300-400 p. (approximately) E, 
Ph.D. thesis, 

Brandt, Harry Alonzo, Meet Henry Kurtz. Elgin : B. P. H. 

136 p. 

This boolc tells of the revival of printing among the 
Brethren after the three quarters of a century that fol- 
lowed the destruction of the Sower press. It is illustrated 
by a number of pen sketches by the author. It is a com- 
panion volume to Christopher Sower and Son. 

Hoover, William I. T., The Challenge of Christianity. Dr. 

W. I. T. Hoover, professor of Philosophy Emeritus, La 
Verne College, La Verne, California, has the manuscript of 
a book, "The Challenge of Christianity," ready for publica- 
tion. It gives the results of years of investigation and 
thought concerning the philosophy of the Christian religion, 
a course which he made famous in La Verne College. 500 
advance orders at $2.00 per copy will insure publication. 

Kinsey, William, Misunderstood Subjects. Elgin: B. P. H. 

128 p. 

This book attempts to answer many of the recurrent the- 
ological questions from a sound Biblical exegesis. 

Meyer, Jacob Gibble, and Hamer, Oliver Stuart, The New 

World and Its Growth. Chicago : Follett Publishing Co. 
584 p. 

Miller, John Ezra, The Story of Our Church. Elgin: B. P. 

H. 200 p. E. 

This book deals with the history of the Church of the 
Brethren, especially concerning our Sunday schools. An- 
nual Meetings, and our periodical literature. It is espe- 
cially adapted for young people. 

Muir, Gladys, George Carl, pioneer. Elgin Illinois, by the 

Home Mission department of the General Mission Board, 
Church of the Brethren. 

Heckman, John & Miller, John Ezra, Brethren in North- 
ern Illinois and Wisconsin. Elgin, Illinois, B. P. H. 260 p. 

Church of the Brethren Yesterday and Tomorrow. (Pro- 
posed doctrinal book for young people). Mimeographed. 
40 p. 

Miller, J. E., Fifty Years Ago; How the Brethren Answered 

the Call from Europe. Elgin, Illinois. General Mission 
Board. 



108 SCHWARZENAU 

Alphabetical Bibliography of Undated Books 

Adams, David M., A Brief History of Claar Congregation. Cle- 
ona, Pennsylvania: Holsapel Publishing Co. 60 p. Illustra- 
tions. E. 

Arnold, Charles Edward, Journeys of Jesus. Philadelphia : Sunday 
School Times Publishing Co. 

Baker, Naaman Rimmon, Schoolroom Fenestration. 

Bashor, Steven Henry and Dillon, A Debate Between Elder Bashor 
and Elder Dillon. B. 

Trine immersion, baptism for remission of sins, feet- 
washing, the Lord's Supper. 

Beck, August, Tales from Every Day Life. Published by the au- 
thor. 96 p. B. 

Contains the personal experiences of August Beck who 
was born in Denmark, came to America when he was a 
boy, and later attended Bethany Bible School and became 
a minister. 

Brightbill, Alvin Franz, Hymns for Youth: A Study of Their Use 
in Worship, Part I : Music in Religious Education. Part II. 
(mimeographed) 51, 77 p. 

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, The Story of Theodore Roosevelt. M. 
Eshleman, Matthew Mays, Los Angeles, Then and Now. 

. Operations of the Holy Spirit as Taught in the Bible. 

Tropico, California: author. 125 p. 

History of the Danish Mission. No Publisher listetd. 75 ■ 



p. B. 

Flory, John Samuel, r/if? P///)i/. Elgin : The Elgin Press. 110 p. B. 
Religious education text. 

F'lory, Jacob Stoner, JVestern Ramblings. 

. Lock and Key. 

. Woman's Friend. 

Hawbaker, C. C. and Dotterer, J. E., Christian Stewardship Stud- 
ies, Part I and Part //. Elgin : Men's Work, Church of the 
Brethren. B. 

This is a guide for a six months' study course In steward- 
ship; Part I, 151 p. Part II, 159 p. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 

Huber, Leonard, Notes on the New Testament. 

Ikenberry, Charles Samuel, The Organization and Administration 
of the Church School. Elgin : the Elgin Press. 101 p. 

Johnson, Carman Cover, How to Teach Adults. 

Kurtz, Daniel Webster, The Human Problem (pamphlet). 

. The Message of the Church, (pamphlet) 

Meyer, Jacob Gibble, Things JVorth While as Found in the Sermon 
on the Mount. Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania : Published by 
the College. M. 

Mohler, David, (Old Order) Poems on Bible Subjects. Dayton, 
Ohio: author. 140 p. B. 

A booklet containing sixty poems taken from various sub- 
jects found in both Old and New Testaments, a part of 
which may be used as songs, to which the tune or meter 
is indicated. 

Moomaw, B. C, Supernatural Healing. Huntingdon, Pennsylva- 
nia: B. P. H. 154 p. B. 

Morris, James Henry, Forty Lessons in Acts and Epistles on Paul. 
42 p. B. 

An outline for normal work and private study. 

. Historical Facts of Church and State. 230 p. B. 

A list of significant facts arranged in chronological order. 

Moyer, Elgin Sylvester, and others. The Missionary Awakening of 
Elm Grove. Elgin : General Mission Board. 1 5 p. B. 

A play written by a class in missions at Bethany Bible 
School. 

Myers, Garry Cleveland, Learning to be Likable. Columbus. 

. The Modern Parent. New York: Greenberg Co. 

Ober, Henry Kulp, Principles of Teaching. Elgin : the Elgin Press. 
67 p. 

Rarick, W. Carl, A Notebook for Apostolic Church History, as told 
in Acts and the Epistles. Elgin : B. P. H. 16 p. 

A Notebook for the Journeys of Jesus as told in the Gos- 



pels. Elgin: B. P. H. 18 p. 



110 SCHWARZENAU 

. A Notebook for Old Testament History. Author. 24 p. B. 

Contains nine outline maps with directions for their use, 
also a brief outline of Old Testament history. For use in 
Sunday school and normal classes. 

Rittenhouse, A. H., The Bible and the Public Schools. Elgin: Edu- 
cational League. 64 p. E. 

The Illinois Supreme Court decision barring the Bible 
from the public schools of the state. 

Rosenberger, Isaac J., The Holy Spirit with its Varied Functions. 
Covington, Ohio: author. 176 p. B. 

Ross, Amos Walter, Our Field, Opportunity and Needs. 

Royer, Galen Brown, Ruth, the Truehearted. 

Senger, Nettie Mabelle, and Dickenson, Barbour Dorothy, Prin- 
ciples in Child Training, Books I and H. (in Chinese) Shang- 
hai, China: Christian Literature Society. B. 

Sherrick, Marvin Manam, Sermon Outlines. 

Showalter, A. J., Hytnns, Tunes and Gospel Songs; for S. S., Prayer, 
Praise and Revival Meetings, and General Public Worship. 
Dalton, Georgia. 277 hymns. 

Wayland, John Walter, History Stories for Primary Grades. 

. How to Teach American History. 

Wieand, Albert Cassel, Analytic Diagram and Outline of the Life 
of Christ. 

Yoder, Charles Francis, Gospel Church Government. 

. Some Significant Tendencies of the Time. 

Young, Emanuel Sprankle, Acts of the Apostles. 

. Analysis of the Books of the Bible. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 111 



A Few Books Pertaining to the Church 
of the Brethren 



Faris, J. T., Old Churches and Meeting Houses in and Around 
Philadelphia. 

Kable, Harvey J., and Kable, Harry G., Mount Morris: Past and 
Present. Mt. Morris, Illinois: Mt. Morris Index Print. 1900, 
319 p. B.E. 

An illustrated history of the township and village of Mt. 
Morris, Ogle County, Illinois, in their various stages of 
development, together with a local biographical directory. 

Kelly, Robert L., A Survey of the Brethren College, (mimeo- 
graph) New York: Association of American Colleges, 1933, 
162 p. B. 

Kett, H. F., and Company (publishers) The History of Carroll 
County, Illinois. Chicago, H. F. Kett & Co. 1878, 501 p. E. 
Contains a history of the county — its cities, towns, etc. 
Portraits of early settlers and prominent men. 

Seidenstlcker, Oswald, The First Century of German Printing in 
America, 1728-1830. Philadelphia: German Pioneer-Verein 
of Philadelphia. 1893. 253 p. B. 

Zumbrunnen, Albert C, The Community Church. 66-13 p. 



Index of Authors by Year of Publication 



Abbott, James 1898 

Adams, David M * 

Annual Meeting Minutes 1876 

1883, 1886, 1889, 1894, 1899, 
1906. 1908, 1909, 1917, 1922, 
1930. 1937, see also Church 
of the Brethren 

Arnold, C. E 1895 

Baker, Naaman R 1894 

Balsbaugh, C. H 1895 

Barnhart, Joseph 1926 

Barnhart, Wilbur S 1934 

Bashor, S. H 1878 

1912, * 

Bates, Bess Royer 1921, 1924 

Bauman, Louis S 1934 

Beck, August * 

Beer, J. W 1874 

Beerv, Adaline Hohf 1897 

Beery, Jesse 1890, * 

Beerv, William 1889, 1924 

Berkbile, Nora E 1921 

Beshore, Edith L 1929, 1930 

Bicentennial Addresses 1908 

Blough, Jerome E 1916 

Blough, S. S 1919 

Bittinc:er, Desmond W 1938 

1939. 1941 

Board of Christian Education . . . 1937 

1938, 1940 

Bonsack, Charles D 1935 

Bowman, Warren D 1938 

Brandt, Harry A 1916 

1930. 1938, '1941 
Brethren, see Church of the 

Brethren 

Brethren's Book and Tract Work 1892 

1900 
Brethren Publishing House, 

190.". see Church of the 

Brethren 

Brightbili, Alvin F * 

Brower. A. H 1924 

Brubaker, John H 1907 

Brumbaugh, H. B 1893, 1910 

Brumbaugh, Martin G 1897 

1899, 1904, 1905. 1908, 1930, 

* 

Burkholder, Wealthy A 1929 

Bucher, George 1908 

Cable, W. Arthur 1923, 1927 

China 1905, 1915 



Church of the Brethren, see 
Annual Aleeting minutes. 
Song books, Tracts, Pamph- 
lets, and Hymnals 

Clement. John A 1923, 1925 

Clapper, Grace 1921 

Cobb, E. M 1905, 1920 

Cordier, Andrew W 1931 

1932, * 

Crafts. Wilbur F 1918 

Craik, Elmer L 1922, * 

Crumpacker, Frank H 1921, 1937 

Culler. Arthur J 1912, 1930 

Culler. David D 1907, 1912 

Davis. C. Ernest 1923 

Dove. F. D 1932 

Dowling, W. W 1900, 1901 

Eby, Adam 1899 

Eby, David F 1880 

Ellis. C. C 1919, 1924 

Emmert, David 1901 

Emmert, J. S 1904 

Engle. Jesse 1893 

Eshelman. Matthew M 1874 

1875, 1887. 1892, 1915, 1917, 
* 

Falkenstein. G. N 1901 

Faris. J. T * 

Fitzwater, P. B * 

Florv. Ezra 1926, 1927 

Florv, John S. (Virginia) 1898 

1908, 1923, 1925, 1932, * 

Florv. John S. (California) 1893 

1908. * 

Francis. J. G 1916 

Frantz. Ira H 1933 

Funk. Benjamin 1900 

Funk, Jacob 1910 

Garber, Clark M 1937, 1938 

Garber, John A 1930 

Garber. Paul 1924 

Garber, S. W 1919 

Garrett. Marguerite Bixler. . 1899, 1924 

Garst. G. O. 1920 

General Ministerial Board 1930 

General Mission Board 1919 

Gibson. D. B 1903. 1907 

Gillett, E. C 1929, 1930 

Gillin. John Lewis 1905 

1906. 1921, * 

Gish, James R 1885 



*The name of this author is listed in catalog of undated books, which follows 
the chronological catalogue. 

112 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



113 



Gribble, Florence Newberry .... 1932 
Grisso, Lillian 1938 

Hamer, Anna M 1934 

Hamer, O. Stuart 1930 

1934, 1936, 1938, 1939, 1941 

Hamilton, William J 1926 

Hark, J. Max 1889 

Harsh, Mary Hykes 1934 

Harnlv, Mrs. Henry H 1903 

Hartshorne, Hugh 1932 

Haughtelin, J. D 1913 

Hawbaker, C. C * 

Hays. Daniel 1907 

1908, 1916 

Heckler, James Y 1883 

Heckman, J. Hugh 1932 

Heckman, Samuel B 1912 

Heisev, Walter J 1919 

Helser, Albert D 1926 

1930, 1934 

Henry, J. M 1929, 1936 

Hoff, Emanuel B 1913 

1917, 1919, 1923 

Hoff, Ernest G 1936 

Hoff, John Luke 1928 

Hoffert, Andrew T 1929 

Hoffert, Franklin P 1909 

Holsinger, George B 1898, 1906 

Holsinger, H. R 1901 

Hoover, W. L T 1924, 1941 

Horning, Emma 1921 

Hymnals 1882, 1891 

1894, 1901, 1911, 1918, 1922, 

1925, see also Showalter, J. 

H., and Church of the 

Brethren 

Ikenberry. C. S 1920, 1922 

* 

Inglenook Cook Book 1901, 1911 

Johnson, Carman C * 

Judy, Will 1927, 1930 

Kable, Haryey J * 

Karn, Oma 1913 

Kelly, Robert I * 

Kett, H. F * 

Kinsey, Samuel 1865 

Kinsey, William 1934, 1941 

Kirkpatrick, Ellis L. 1930 

Kurtz, D. W 1912, 1914 

1919, 1926, 1936, * 

Kurtz, Mrs. D. W 1937 

Kurtz, Henry 1837, 1844 

1852, 1867 " 

Lear, J. W. 1917 

Leckrone, Quincy 1898 

Lepley, D. F 1916 

Livermore, S. T * 

Lynn, Arthur 1920 



Maxam, C. R 1927 

Maxwell, Leslie B 1934 

Mack, Alexander . 1888 

Meyer. Jacob G 1928 

1938, 1941, ♦ 

Miller, D. L 1885, 1894 

1898, 1902, 1906, 1907, 1908, 

1912 

Miller, Mrs. D. L 1894 

Miller, Howard 1882, 1902 

Miller, J. E 1921, 1931 

1940, 1941 

Miller, J. Quinter 1932 

Miller, Minor C 1923, 1924 

Miller, N. J 1916 

Miller, R. H., Sr 1876 

1898, 1899 

Miller, R. H., Jr 1929, 1934 

Miller, W. R 1904 

Minnich, H. Spenser 1926 

Minutes of Annual Conference . . 1876 

1883, 1886, 1889, 1894, 1899, 

1906, 1908, 1909, 1917, 1922, 

1930, 1937, see also Church 

of the Brethren 

Moeller, H. C 1936 

Moherman, T. S 1914 

Mohler, David * 

Mohler, J. S 1886, 1901 

Montgomery, Michael 1930 

Moomaw, B. C 1889 

1909, * 

Moomaw, B. F 1867, 1899 

Moomaw, D. C 1924, 1925 

Moore, J. H 1877, 1907 

1910, 1914, 1921, 1923, 1929 
Morris, James H 1920 

1922, * 

Morris, Mary Winey 1931 

Mow, A. 1 1914 

Mover, Elgin S 1926, 1931 

1937, 1938, * 

Muir, Gladdys Esther 1939 

Myers, Anna Balmer 1920 

Myers, Garry C 1930, * 

Myers, T. T 1895, 1903 

McCann, S. N 1897 

McClain, Alva J 1927 

McConnell, N. A 1868 

Nead. Peter 1850, 1883 

1866 

Neff, Florence 1913 

Neff, James M 1902 

Newcomer, Edna A 1908 

Newcomer, M. S 1891 

Noffsinger, J. S 1925, 1926 

Noffsinger, Sadie B 1896 

Ober, H. K 1934, * 

Oberholtzer, Isaiah E 1919 

Old Order Brethren 1883 

Opperman, Owen 1897 



114 



SCHWARZENAU 



Pamphlets 1892, 1900 

Patrv, Rav C 1941 

Price, D. E 1908 

Quinter, James 1868, 1886 

Quinter, Mary N 1891 

Rarick, Ralph G 1917 

Rarick, W. Carl 1927, * 

Richards, Anne 1895 

Rittenhouse, A. H * 

Rodabaugh, Willis P 1924 

Rohrer, Perry L 1922, 1934 

Rosenberger, Elizabeth D 1902 

1903, 1906 
Rosenberger, Isaac J 1907 

1909, 1922, * 

Ross, Amos W 1918, 1926 

Rover, Galen B 1898, 1900 

1901, 1902, 1904, 1907, 1912, 

1913, 1914, * 
Royer. J. G 1896, 1908 

Sanger, Homer F 1923 

Sanger, S. F 1907 

Savler, D. P 1882 

Schauffler, A. F 1908 

Secrist, J. S 1911 

Seese, Anna 1921 

Seese, Norman A 1919 

Seidensticker, Oswald * 

Sell, James A 1906, 1916 

1924, 1927 

Senger, Nettie M * 

Sharp, S. Z 1897, 1923 

Sherrick, Marvin M 1900 

Showalter, A. J * 

Showalter, J. H 1891, 1894 

1895, 1898 

Shoup, William J 1905 

Shull, Merlin C 1940 

Shultz, L. W 1935 

Slabaugh, Warren W 1937 

Snvder, J. S 1907 

Snyder, S. P 1868 

Song books 1882, 1891 

1894, 1901, 1911, 1918, 1922, 

1925, see also Showalter, J. 
H. and Church of the 
Brethren 

Spickler, Henry M 1922 



Stein, J. W 1876, 1878 

1881 

Stover, Wilbur B 1902, 1914 

1919, 1924, 1927 

Taylor, Lydia E 1916 

Teeter, Lewis W 1893 

Thurman, William 1864 

Tinkle, William J 1939 

Tombaugh, J. M 1919 

Tracts and pamphlets 1892, 1900 

Trout, LB 1901, 1902 

1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1915 

Urner, Isaac N 1893, 1898 

Vaniman, Daniel 1896 

Warstler, Anna 1921 

Wayland, John W 1901, 1905 

1907, 1912, 1919, 1924, 1928, 
1930, * 

Welch, Myra Brooks 1929 

Wenger, C. M 1898 

West, Dan 1938 

West, Landon 1880 

West, Russell G 1931 

Wieand, Albert C 1918, 1923 

1932 

Winger, Otho 1910, 1917 

1919, 1921, 1928, 1933, 1934, 

1935, 1936, 1939, 1940 

Wood, Julia A 1887 

Yearlv Meetings 1876, 1883 

1886, 1889, 1894, 1899, 1906, 

1908, 1909, 1917, 1922, 1930, 
1937, see also Church of the 
Brethren 

Yoder, Charles F 1908, 1930 

* 

Young, Emanuel S 1896 

1898, 1900, 1915, 1923, * 

Yount, O. F 1877 

Zerfass, S. G 1921 

Ziegler, Edward K 1939 

Zigler, D. H 1908 

Zigler, Samuel H 1920 

Zollers, George D 1892, 1905 

Zug, S. R 1915 

Zumbrunnen, Albert C * 



Historical Society Notes 



The Third Annual Business Meeting of the Alexander Mack Historical 
Society was held at Bethany Biblical Seminary, November 18, 1941. The 
meeting was held in Room A of the Seminary and was called to order by the 
president at 2 p. m. 

There had been one meeting of the Executive Committee since the last 
Business Meeting. 

That meeting of the Committee had decided to invite the 1941 Seminary 
Class in History and Doctrines of the Church of the Brethren to become 
members of the Society. The invitation was unanimously accepted. Bruce 
Flora and Ross Noffsinger, as contributors to the Journal were voted mem- 
bership in the Society. 

The annual presidential address was given. 

Business was resumed and on motion the following action was passed. 
"That because of the difficulty of holding the Business Meeting during the 
Seminary Commencement Week, the yearly meeting of the Society be com- 
bined with a suitable meeting of the class in History and Doctrines of the 
Church of the Brethren." 

The first official list of members were continued with certain names added 
which had been omitted from the printed list through error. 

Prof. A. M. Stuckey, Professor of Church History at Ashland College, 
Ashland, Ohio, was voted a Sustaining Member of the Society. 

Prof. A. F. Brightbill and Fred Butterbaugh were made Sustaining mem- 
bers for terms of five years, in recognition for services rendered to the So- 
ciety. 

The Executive Committee was authorizerl to incorporate the Society — 
the time of incorporation, and whether in Illinois or Michigan being left to 
the committee's judgment. 

The nominating committee and the election resulted as follows : 

Pres.— F. E. Mallott 

Vice Pres. — Elgin Moyer 

Sec. — Mrs. F. E. Mallott (term expires '43) 

Members of Executive Committee — 
Fred Butterbaugh 
Mary Elizabeth Wieand 

Sustaining Members of the Society — 

Bowman, Mrs. Curtis B. Garber, Merlin Mallott, Ruth B. 

Bowman, Loren Harley, Samuel Miley, W. H. 

Butterbaugh, Fred H. Holderread, Andrew 3.1iller, Elvert 

Faw, Chalmer Judy, Will Miller, Vernon 

Flora, Bruce H. Kaufmann, Peter Mitchell. Earl 

Flora, Kermit P. Kettering, Harold E. Moyer, Elgin S. 

Flory, Wendell P. Mallott, Floyd E. Noffsinger, Ross 

115 



116 SCHWARZENAU 

Replogle, Jacob F. Showalter, Roland Wieand. David 

Ringgold, Carroll S. Strickler, Robert Wieand, Mary Elizabeth 

Rose, L. D. Thomas, Susie Wiemer, Virgil D. 

Scrogum, Ira West, Russell Whitmer, Geneva 
Shenefelt, Francis 

Honorary Life Member of the Society — 
Otho Winger 



I. 



SCHWARZENAU 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor, F. E. Mallott, Professor of Church History Bethany Biblical Seminary 
Assistant Editor, Elgin S. Mover Contributing Editor, L. D. Rose 

Volume III APRIL, 1942 Number Three 



CONTENTS 

Editorial Notes 119 

Excerpts from Elder John J. Emmert's Diary 120 

John Heckman 

Ai^iTUDE OF the Church Toward Theology 124 

Virgil D. Weimer 

Would Saint Francis Make a Good Dunker? 130 

Vernon Miller 

Charity in the Christian Church 146 

Mary Schaefer 

The Christian Church and the Rise of Capitalism 162 
Paul S. Hersch 

Book Reviews 170 



WHO'S WHO IN THIS ISSUE 

Eld, John Heckman, is a resident of Polo, 
111. Long known for his active and effective 
service, the study of Brethren history has been 
a passion with him. Co-author of the District 
History of North Illinois and Wisconsin, the 
work is based on his research. 

Virgil D. Weimer, A.B. of Bridgewater Col- 
lege of Virginia. He completes the B.D. de- 
gree of Bethany Biblical Seminary in May 
1942. Minister and pastor. 

Vernon Miller, A.B., of Manchester College 
of Indiana. Minister. At present in residence 
at Bethany Biblical Seminary. Leader in peace 
and work camp and youth activities. 

Mary Schaeffer, A.B., of Manchester Col- 
lege, has won distinction on the Mission Field 
of China. The world catastrophe found her 
on furlough and she has spent the year 1941- 
42 in study at Bethany Biblical Seminary 
where she receives the degree }.I.R.E. in May, 
1942. 

Paul S. Hersch, A.B., of Manchaster Col- 
lege. Minister. Resident student at Bethany 
Biblical Seminary. One who can write and 
speak with the gift of clarity. 




EDITORIAL NOTES 

WE COMMEND OURSELVES 

We are closing the third volume of Schwarzenau with this number. 
We are proud of the contents of this number. The vivid historical imagi- 
nation of Vernon Miller compels the reader's attention. Had you ever 
thought of his question? 

Sometimes it is asked of an article not directly on Brethren history. 
Why did you publish it? Lest anyone ask, may we anticipate. At a time 
when the Brethren Service Committee is so nearly in the center of Church 
life, it is well to contemplate the course of Christian Charity. We commend 
a reflective reading of the study of Miss Schaeffer in this field. The quality 
and clarity of Paul Hersch's essay makes it relevant in a time when we seem 
to be passing through a major transition in world culture. 

We feel genuinely glad to enter the name of Eld. John Heckman as a 
contributor to this issue. Few men have followed Brethren history with 
greater attention and are more at home in Brotherhood lore than Elder Heck- 
man. We welcome his promise of further contributions. 

WE GO FORWARD 

It is with great pleasure we face the future. The next number will carry 
details of this announcement of an enlarged "Schwarzenau." Hitherto we 
have been in the experimental stage. An enlarged editorial board and in- 
creased financial support make our future much rosier. 

But we need an enlarged circle of readers. The even more fundamental 
need — writers — seems to be supplied. 

We need four hundred automatically renewing subscribers. Altho the 
journal is enlarging its scope it will remain for the present at the old sub- 
scription price, one dollar per annum. 

We cannot build an extensive sales organization. Our reliance is upon 
those interested in Church History and especially upon those interested in 
the Church that rose at Schwarzenau. 

Use the enclosed card— WITHOUT DELAY. 



EXCERPTS FROM ELDER JOHN 
J. EMMERY'S DIARY 

Polo, 111., Feb. 4, 1942 
Dear Brother Mallott : — 

Not forgetting the promise I made you some months ago, I am sending 
you a few clips from the diary of Elder John J. Emmert who lived in Illinois 
nearly all his Hfe. He died in Mt. Morris in 1893. He left us some very 
valuable papers of various kinds. His diary began Feb. 1, 1857, and con- 
tinued to his death. The year 1862 is missing. 

A few years ago I found this diary in California. I went through it and 
gleaned many items of church interest. I am inclosing these three pages 
covering my gleanings from the two years, 1857 and 1858. As the years 
pass, he gives much the same kind of information. If more of this would be 
of interest to you, I would be willing to copy it off and send it. 

I have inserted a few parentheses as explanatory. You will note them 
easily. John Heckman. 

1857 

Feb. 1. Series of meetings at the Grove by David Rittenhouse and 
C. Long. Kansas fever raging. Threshing wheat to get straw. 

Feb. 4. Singing at the Grove. Attended some of them. Stopped go- 
ing. Things went on that I disapproved. Attended M. E. 
church in town. 

Apr. 13, Mon. Big Council Meeting in Ogle County. [First Dist. 
Meeting in Illinois, at West Branch.] 

June 29, Mon. John Sprogle preached in the Courthouse. Power- 
ful sermon, I Tim. 3 :16. 

July 12, Sun. Went to M. E. camp meeting. Much rain. 

July 19, Sun. George Puterbaugh preached. 

Aug. 23, Sun. Meeting at the Brick schoolhouse. Rittenhouse 
preached. 

Aug. 30, Sun. Meeting at the Grove. George Puterbaugh preached. 
Puterbaugh's wife died Oct. 26, 1857 [evidently entered later]. 
Andrew Emmert went south for peaches. 

Sept. 10. Every day brings accounts of bank failings. Money very 
hard to get. 

Sept. 15, Tues. Daniel Arnold died this evening of typhoid fever. 
Wed. funeral. C. Long preached from Job. 14. "O how 
hard it is to give up a dear and respected friend." 

120 




DIARY >,0M'f^iM 

Oct. 9, Fri. Visited Uncle Ben. Swingley, Mt. Morris. 

Oct. 31, Sat. Lovefeast at the Grove. John Buck and Michael 

Sissler elected to the ministry. wSamuel Lahman, Sr., present. 

On Sunday house more than full. 
Nov. 16, Sun. Rittenhouse and Michael Sissler preached in the 

Courthouse. 
Christmas Week. Brother Emmert goes horseback to visit Old 

Uncle Joseph Emmert in Lee County. He hears him preach. 

It is his second visit. [Old Uncle Joseph Emmert is an uncle 

to Joseph D. Emmert, John J.'s father.] 
Dec. 31. Emmert recites that the plow factory in Grand deTour, 

111., had burned during the year at a loss estim.ated at $50,000. 
1858 
Jan. 17, Sun. James Quinter preached at the Grove morning and 

evening. A. M. text, John 16. Monday morning and evening 

and Tuesday evening he preached at the Grove. Wednesday 

and Thursday evenings he preached in the Mt. Carroll 

Courthouse. 
Jan. 31, Eleven baptized. Mary and William Emmert, H. P. 

Strickler and wife, 
Feb. 14. Meeting at the Grove. Text by Bro. Long from 10th 

chap. Jn. P^our baptized. John Arnold and wife, Joseph 

Strickler and John Eisenbise. 
Feb. 17. My birthday. Twenty-five today. 
Feb. 20. Went to meeting near Franklin Grove. Listened to a 

discourse by Uncle Joseph. 
Feb. 22, Mon. Came home as far as Livengood's. Stayed all night. 
Feb. 25. Joseph Stitzel and Miss Strickler married. 
Feb. 24, Wed. Meetings at Cherry Grove. Text by Enoch Eby, 

Rom. 12. 
Feb. 26, Fri. A series of meetings commencing at the Grove. Enoch 

Eby preached an excellent sermon from John 12:1. 
Feb. 27. Preaching again at the Grove by Eby and [Daniel] Fry. 

Also this eve from Matt. 20. 
Feb. 28, Sun. Assembled for worship. Text Matt. 24. Nine were 

baptized. Also preaching this evening from 2nd. Cor. 2. 
Mar. 1, Mon. Cleaning wheat. Meeting at Rittenhouse's school- 
house tonight. 



122 SCHWARZENAU 

Mar. 2, Tues. Five were baptized today. Preaching again tonight. 
Mar. 5, Fri. Meeting tonight at the Grove schoolhouse by Long 

and Rittenhouse. 
Mar. 7, Sun. Preaching at the Brick. Text 2nd. Peter 1. Andrew 

Baker and wife, and A. Harnish and wife baptized. 
Mar. 12, Fri. Making fence. Bro. Long passed. Said they had 

meeting last night. Today sixteen baptized. Ten women and 

six men. 
Mar. 14, Sun. Meeting at the Grove. Text by Rittenhouse, Rom. 12. 
Mar. 21, Sun. Meeting at the George Emmert schoolhouse. Text 

by Long 2nd. Peter 1. Jacob Kline baptized. Good social 

meeting at Bro. Strickler's. 
Mar. 25, Thur. Mrs. S. Strickler baptized today. 
Mar. 28, Sun. Listened to a discourse from Acts 3, by Bro. Lahman 

in Franklin Grove, Lee County. 
Mar. 29, Mon. Meeting at the Grove yesterday. Seven baptized. 
Apr. 2, Fri. One person baptized at Brother Musselman's. 
Apr. 3, Sat. Went to meeting at the Grove. Brother Lahman 

preached from 1st. Cor. 15. 
Apr. 4, Sun. Assembled this morning for worship, also this eve. 

Excellent preaching by Lahman, Eby and [Samuel] Garber. 
Apr. 5, Mon. A General Council of several churches assembled 

at the Grove. The four churches were well represented. 

Went off well. (These four churches constituted the district 

at that time. This was the second Dist. Meeting). 
Apr. 10, Mon. Church meeting at the Grove to set forth four 

deacons. Vis: H. P. Strickler, S. Musselman, John Rowland, 

and Daniel Kingery were elected. 
Apr. 14, Wed. Sowing mustard. 
Apr. 25, Sun. Preaching at the Grove. Preaching by Bro. Puter- 

baugh. Three baptized. 
May 2, Sun. Meeting at the Brick. Bro. Long preached. Also in 

the evening at the Grove schoolhouse. 
May 9, Sun. Went to meeting at the Grove. Four baptized. 
May 16, Sun. Attended meeting at the meeting house near Frank- 
lin Grove. Text by S. Licht}'' from Acts 2. 
May 23, Sun. Whitsuntide. Uncle and Aunt Swingley received by 

baptism. Text Acts 2. 



DIARY 123 

June 6, Sun. Meeting at the Grove by Bro. Sisslcr. Text John 3. 
June 8, Tues. Lovefeast at the Grove. Commenced at 1. Heavy 

rain. Stayed at the church all night. Crowded full. Four bap- 
tized. 
June 30, Sun. Went to meeting as usual at the Grove. Good in= 

struction by Buck and Long. Text Rom. 1. Joseph Stitzci was 

baptized. 
July 14, Wed. Harvesting mustard. 
July 31, Sat. Tremendous heavy rain vvith thunder. I'he milk 

drowned to death with water running over it [in spring house]. 
Aug. 1, Sun. Text by Sissler at the Grove from Luke 13. 
xA.ug. 8, Sun. Text by Rittenhouse from Luke 17 at the G, Emmert 

schoolhouse. 
Aug. 15, Sun. Preaching at the Grove by [John] Forney and Long. 

2 baptized. 
Aug. 27, Fri. Went for pearls to Plum River. Made out rather 

poor. 
Sept. 12, Sun. Meeting at the Grove. One baptized. 
Sept. 16. W^ild pigeons are plentiful. 
Sept. 26, Sun. W^ent to meeting at the Grove and also to near Mil- 

ledgeville where there was a lovefeast held. Came home in 

the morning. [This first lovefeast at Dutchtown was held in 

the home of Elder Henry Myers at the foot of the hill. Wltn 

some changes this house is still in use.] 
Sept. 27, W^ed. The Carroll Agricultural Fair commences today. 
Oct. 3, Sun. Meeting at the G. Emmert Schoolhouse. Rittenhouse 

preached from the 2nd. Epistle of John. 
Oct. 7. Teacher's Institute in session all week at Mt. Carroll. 
Oct. 9, Sat. Church meeting at the Grove all day. Did not get 

through with the business. 
Oct. 10, Sun. Good meeting at the Grove. Rittenhouse preached 

from 1st. John 3. 
Oct. 16, Sat. Intended going to Stephenson County to a lovefeast 

but it being very rainy, gave it up. 
Oct. 19, Tues. Lovefeast at the Grove. Commenced this P.M. 

Large attendance. Five baptized. 
Oct. 31, Sun. Meeting at the schoolhouse. Text by Sissler and 

Strickler. [This is Elder Henry Strickler.] 



124 SCHWARZENAU 

Nov. 7, Sun. Meeting at the Grove. Text by Bro. Buck, Matt. 23. 

Nov. ll,Thur. Joseph Arnold and Susa Stitzel married, 

Nov. 21, Sun. Attended meeting at the Grove, Text by Strickler 
from Gal. 2. 

Nov. 22, Mon. Attended church meeting at the Grove. Passed oft 
smoothly. Many things were attended to; among others, the 
most important, was division of the church, although peace- 
ably, [It was at this meeting that Hickory Grove and Dutch- 
town congregations were set oft into separate organizations.] 

Dec. 1, Wed. Aunt Polly Strickler very sick. Lizzie and myself 
went up to see her. 

Dec, 5, Sun. Meeting at the Grove. Text by Bro. Long from Col. 1. 

Dec. 9, Thur. Threshing clover seed. 

Dec. 12, Sun. Went to meeting at the Brick. Excellent preaching 
by Long and Rittenhouse. 

Dec. 19, Sun. Went to meeting. 7 ext by Bro. Lichty followed by 
Long. John 4. 

Dec. 23, Thur. Mary and myself went to Cherry Grove. A series 
of meetings commences this eve. Long preaches. The meeting 
continued three days. 



ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH 
TOWARD THEOLOGY 

Virgil D. Weimer 

"In the subtilities of speculative theology the Church takes but 
little interest. She is chiefly concerned in giving willing and cheer- 
ful obedience to the plain, simple commandments of Jesus Christ."^ 
This quotation is perhaps the most representative statement of the 
position of the Church of the Brethren toward theology. It would 
apply from the beginning of the Church through to the present 
time with little modification. Although authoritative doctrinal 
statements and writings have been made and brought before An- 
nual Meeting for approval, the Church has never ofticially adopted 
a particular theological system or a formal creed. 

1. Winger, Otho, History and Doctrine of the Church of the Brethren, p. 232. 
(Winger quotes D. L. Miller.) 



CHURCH AND THEOLOGY 125 

The reason for this attitude lies chiefly in the historical begin- 
ning of the church in Germany. Alexander Mack was born in Ger- 
many in 1679 at about the time when the Pietistic movement had 
almost reached its full growth. His family belonged to the Re- 
formed Church. They were diligent in religious matters and of a 
pious and sincere nature. Mack early became dissatisfied with the 
religious atmosphere of the state churches and became a separatist. 
Besides his own investigations and thinking, Mack was in all prob- 
ability somewhat influenced in taking this step by Pietistic thought. 
He and his wife endured persecution and finally with their family 
sought refuge at Schwarzenau. 

Schwarzenau at this time was a haven of refuge for many perse- 
cuted people who in some way were in opposition to the state 
churches. Here Mack became more closely and definitely associated 
with the Pietists. He was also under the influence of the writings of 
Gottfried Arnold who pioneered in an historical study of the prim- 
itive Christian Church. However, the greatest influence came from 
the Pietistic group. 

It is pertinent to our topic to understand the attitude of the Pie- 
tists toward the theology of the times which was cold, dogmatic, 
intellectual, and binding. Ascent to particular beliefs and doctrine 
was the main emphasis of the Lutheran Church and other state 
churches. Because of this little attention was given to practical 
goodness of the Christian life. The Pietists among other things 
emphasized this practical goodness. As a result little attention was 
given to dogmatic theological systems or creeds. Although this 
emphasis did not deny theology, it gave it a very minor place. 
Among the Pietistic separatists, with which group Mack was closely 
associated, theology counted for very little. Mack undoubtedly 
already held a similar attitude since he was a separatist, but this 
was strengthened by his association with the Pietists. 

Out of his study of the New Testament and primitive Church 
history. Mack became conscious of certain rites and ordinances 
commanded by Christ and practiced by the primitive Church which 
the present state churches did not practice. He also saw practices 
in the state churches which he believed were contrary to the New 
Testament teaching and practice. The separatists with whom 
Mack was associated did not believe in a formal church organiza- 



126 SCHWARZENAU 

tion for fear of falling into the error of the state churches. How- 
ever, Mack realized that if the rites and ordinances of the New 
Testament were to be carried out some type of group unity would 
be needed. Mack found a group who was of the same mind and 
the Church of the Brethren was organized in 1708 with one of its 
main purposes being the practicing of the New Testament rites and 
ordinances as they understood them and to correct any error in 
their practice which was apparent in the state churches. The New 
Testament was adopted as their rule of faith and practice. 

We see then, I think, three factors inherent in the historical be- 
ginning oi the Church and transmitted throughout its history as 
CO why tlie Church of the Brethren has taken little interest "in the 
subtilities of speculative theology"; namely, (1) the antipathy of 
its paternal members toward theology because of its speculative, 
dogmatic, cold, intellectual, and binding nature; (2) the emphasis 
placed on the practice of the practical goodness of Christianity; 
(3) the emphasis placed on the correct practice of the New Tes- 
tament rites and ordinances. 

This latter emphasis has been a particular important factor in 
Church belief and the most important in subordinating interest in 
strictly theological doctrine in the Church. The rites and ordi- 
nances have been so much developed, emphasized, and defended 
that one often hears them commonly spoken of as the doctrine of 
the Church of the Brethren. 

From the latter part of the nineteenth century on there is evi- 
dence that points to a progressive open interest in the Church to- 
ward theological subjects. In the Preface of his book, The Doc- 
trine of the Brethren Defended, (1876) Bro. R. H. Miller makes 
a statement which is interesting. He says, "As we have discussed 
some subjects that are not much written upon by our brethren, and 
as it is probable that some things are new either in matter or form, 
we hope our brethren will examine it carefully. . . ." This state- 
ment upholds the truth of Bro. D. L. Miller's statement quoted at 
the beginning of this paper, and also shows an interesting trend of 
interest in more strictly theological subjects. For besides dealing 
with good Brethren practices, he writes about the divinity of Christ 
and the divinity of the Holy Spirit. The publication of such sub- 
jects would seem to indicate at this time a growing interest in theo- 



CHURCH AND THEOLOGY 127 

logical subjects. The hidden undercurrent of theology is now 
coming out into the open. 

In 1914 we find further representative evidence of this more open 
growth of interest in theolog}' in the publication of two books: The 
New Testament Doctrines, by J. H. Moore, and An Outline of the 
Fundamental Doctrines of Faith, by D. W. Kurtz. Besides writing 
about good Brethren practices, we find these two men writing about 
such subjects as the Doctrine of God, Man, Christ, Salvation, the 
Church, the Scriptures, the Trinity, and Eschatology, 

In 1913 a query came before Annual Meeting requesting the pub- 
lication of a suitable book to be used in the instruction of converts. 
In 1916 the Conference adopted the following report of the Gen- 
eral Sunday School Board. 

The General Sunday School Board, to which the Annual Meeting of 
1915 referred the matter of devising a plan for publishing a Book on Doc- 
trine, presents the following report : 

I. After investigation, we suggest that the Book on Doctrine contain 
three sections as follows : 

1. Fundamental Doctrine of the Christian Church. 

Under this heading should be treated such subjects as, The Triune God- 
head, The Bible the Word of God, God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son of 
God, The Holy Spirit, Sin, The Atonement, The Church. Faith, Repentance, 
Baptism Regeneration or The New Birth, Conversion, Redemption, Justi- 
fication, Sanctification, The Second Coming of Christ. Resurrection. Judg- 
ment, and Heaven. 

2. Church Ordinances and Distinctive Practices of the Church of the 
Brethren : 

Under this heading should be treated such subjects as. The New Testa- 
ment Our Rule of Faith and Practice, Trine Immersion. Feet \\''ashing. The 
Lord's Supper, The Eucharist or Communion, The Salutation or Holy Kiss, 
The Anointing. The Prayer Veil, The Simple Life, Christian Adornment, 
and a chapter on the points of Instruction to Applicants. 

3. The Christian Life in Service. 

Under this heading should be treated such subjects as, Significance of 
Christian Service, The Surrendered Life, Self-Denial, The Higher Life, 
Christian Growth. Prayer, Bible Reading and Study, Fasting, Assurance, 
Guidance, Humility, Witness Bearing, Christian Giving. Loyalty, Temper- 
ance, Peace, Proper Associates, and Amusements. 

II. We recommend a book about the size of Training the Sunday 
School Teacher, adapted to the ages from ten to sixteen. Scripture texts, 
lists of questions, and constructive and spiritual treatment should be marked 
features. 



128 SCHWARZENAU 

III. The Conference shall encourage but not formally approve the 
book, lest it might in time be accepted as a creed. Therefore we recommend 
that it be published by one of the regularly-organized Boards of the Church.^ 

This book was published in 1919 and followed generally the sug- 
gested outline of the report. The first part of the book, "Funda- 
mental Doctrine of the Christian Church," shows the brotherhood 
as a whole becoming still more concerned with strictly theological 
subjects. 

The above three books represent the closest thing to a theological 
system that we find in the writings of the Church of the Brethren. 
Yet these books do not discuss the subjects in great detail. They 
are more or less a statem.ent or outline of the particular doctrines 
dealt with. It is important to note that the above report recom- 
mends that Conference does not formally approve the book lest it 
become a creed. The same attitude was taken toward the Breth- 
ren's card which came before Conference for adoption in 1922 and 
1923 in which a number of doctrines were set forth for acceptance. 

Besides these books the Brethren have taught doctrine through 
their church papers and made provision for more formal instruction 
through Sunday-school study material. This last step was begun in 
1929 through the approval of Annual Meeting. 

There are reasons for what progress has been made in the devel- 
opment and formulation of an outline of a theological system. The 
continual pressure upon a religious group to keep its distinctiveness 
and define and declare its beliefs makes for development and ex- 
pression of theology in some form. The development of religious 
education and especially the growth of seminary training for reli- 
gious workers tends to increase an interest in and a development of 
the expression of theological subjects. 

The most important reason of all, however, is the felt need of 
materia] which can be used in the instruction of new converts. In 
the Preface of his book, An Outline of the Fundamental Doctrines 
of Faith, p. 7, Bro. Kurtz makes the following statement: "This 
little booklet has been written to meet a need in my own church. 
Most of the new converts who are baptized into this church have 
not come from parents who were members of the Church of the 



2. Minutes of Annual meeting of the Church of the Brethren. 1910-1917: p. 6 
of the Minutes of 1916. 



CHURCH AND THEOLOGY 129 

Brethren, nor have they had other means of becoming acquainted 
with her teachings. Inasmuch as we do not have a catechism to 
indoctrinate our new members, I felt the need of a concise statement 
of the fundamental doctrines of our faith." 

The same idea finds expression in the following queries which 
came before Conference at different times: 

( 1 ) We, the Antietam congregation, in council assembled, do send to 
Annual Meeting, through District Meeting of the Southern District of 
Pennsylvania the following petition : Will not this Annual Meeting take 
steps to supply what has been thought by many to be a real need of the 
Church, — a small book for converts, the object being to instruct and indoc- 
trinate these converts in the principles and practice of true religion. (Minutes 
of Annual Meeting of 1913, p. 4.) 

( 2) Whereas, God's Word instructs us to teach and baptize, and after 
baptism to "teach all things whatsoever I have commanded you" (Matt. 28: 
19-20), and since it is evident that many are lost to the kingdom after bap- 
tism, for the lack of proper teaching, we, the Green Hill Church, petition 
Annual Meeting, through District Meeting of the First District of Virginia, 
to devise some plan whereby the elder or pastor, in charge of churches where 
series of meetings are held, which result in members being brought into the 
church, give a series of instructive teachings, immediately following bap- 
tism, on the fundamentals of the Christian life. (Revised Minutes of An- 
nual Meeting 1778-1922, p. 153, a minute of Annual Meeting of 1916.) 

(3) Whereas, there seems to be an apparent decline in attitude to 
matters of faith, doctrine, and practice as set forth in the Holy Scriptures, 
and as held by the Church, and 

Whereas, much of the curricula of instruction used in the Sunday 
school and young people's work is inadequate to build Christlikeness in spirit, 
thought, and expression in all the different grades and departments of 
church work. 

Therefore, we, the members of the First Church of the Brethren, Ash- 
land, Ohio, beg leave to ask Annual Meeting through District Meeting to 
appoint a committee of able and representative brethren to pursue a careful 
study of the field, and to make recommendations at the 1929 Conference. 
(Minutes of Annual Meeting of 1929 p. 7.) 

In the open development of interest in and expression of theo- 
logical subjects the Brethren have adhered to all the fundamental 
doctrines of Christianity as professed by the Protestant churches 
generally. They have also insisted that these doctrines be thor- 
oughly Biblical. The development of the following doctrines 
have received their attention: Doctrine of God, Doctrine of 
Christ, Doctrine of the Holy Spirit, Doctrine of the Bible, Doc- 
trine of the Church, Doctrine of Man, Doctrine of Sin, Doctrine 
of Salvation, Doctrine of Immortality. 



130 SCHWARZENAU 

From the beginning of the Ciuirch until the present we can see 
progress in the Church in the open interest and expression of the- 
ology. Yet in spite of this progress I think we can still say with 
Bro. Miller, "In the subtilities of speculative theology the church 
takes but little interest. She Is chiefly concerned In giving willing 
and cheerful obedience to the plain, simple commandments of 
Jesus Christ." 



WOULD SAINT FRANCIS MAKE 
A GOOD DUNKER? 

Vernon Miller 

Should we Dunkers take Saint Francis as our patron saint? would 
perhaps be a more pertinent question. Most of us (or at least I was) 
have been so prejudiced in our stereotyped thinking about the Cath- 
olics and anything connected with the papacy that we have refused 
to open our eyes to the rich values which lie within the crust which 
we grant may be somewhat dirty and smelly In spots. I had never 
thought of the possibility of baptizing a Catholic saint. However, 
after spending several weeks living with one of the finest personal- 
ities of all Christendom who was a Catholic saint even before he died, 
I can almost see him coming down the aisle in a rugged log church 
house in response to a Dunker farmer's invitation. Brother Francis 
would be right at home. He and all his followers addressed each 
other as "brother" just as Brother Alexander often spoke to Brother 
Peter. Just Imagine I Here we have two points already why Brother 
Francis (let's drop the "Saint," for I know he would want us to) 
would like our fellowship. First, he would like a rugged church In 
contrast to an elaborate one. In fact he would rather not have any 
at all, but just the great out of doors. He never allowed his friars 
to establish a church as long as he had control. Secondly, the term 
"brother" is the common term of address for both Dunkers and 
Franciscans. 

But we cannot even talk about Francis or Dunkers without finding 
common terminology. We just used that word fellowship. For us 
Dunkers that was our starting point and has been our medium for 



BROTHER FRANCIS 131 

progress ever since. For Francis it was an essential part of his move- 
ment.^ 

We had Brother Francis on his way down the aisle though. He 
wanted to be baptized. We can only humbly ask him why he wants 
us to baptize him ( at least if we are as honest as John the Baptist we 
will). Francis would probably merely reply that it was just because 
it was so beautiful, and just like Jesus did. His biographers would 
say that it was because Francis was always seeking for ways to dram- 
atize the life of Christ in his own life. It is to our friend Brother 
Francis that we owe the habit of decorating a manger scene for our 
worship at Christmas. He got that happy idea one Christmas and 
fixed it up. The world has been doing it ever since. So I am sure he 
would be in ecstasy of highest joy if he could be led down into the 
water and immersed three times as a living drama of the life of 
Christ. In fact I imagine that the only reason he never did was that 
he did not think of it. Then along this line of drama I am sure that 
he would enjoy the old Dunker drama of fellowship at salutation — 
the holy kiss. I can see Francis singing along some Umbrian cowpath 
across the clover fields when he would meet Brother Juniper. The 
holy kiss would be a delightful staccato in the melody and they would 
then joyfully join in a carefree duet. 

Since we have Brother Francis baptized, do you not think we had 
better give him a little catechism? Being a Catholic, he should ex- 
pect it. Being Dunkers, we will think a Catholic needs it. But we do 
not have any such thing as a catechism. Well, why not use the little 
outline which Brother Kurtz has suggested for us. This will suit 
Francis because it is short and not very theological. And really I am 
wrong in saying he would expect a catechism for he would accept 
anyone on their good intentions. In fact he opposed learning and 
study. Here again we must point out a similarity. The Dunkers dur- 
ing certain periods have been opposed to education. 

Kurtz lists two basic foundations of the Dunkers.^ The first is 
that the living Christ is the creed of the Church. Brother Francis 
would clap his hands in joy at this. As one of his Catholic biogra- 
phers says, "The ideal of Francis was to make Christ Himself the 
Rule. Christ's words would be the words of the rule which thus 



1. Cf. Miller, v, The Individual-Fellowship Approach to Social Change. 

2. See Appendix. 



132 SCHWARZENAU 

would carry in itself its own sanction."^ All the other orders had to 
have a Rule, but not Brother Francis 1 He went to the Pope in 1209 
to get permission to preach and have some friars live with him. He 
would not offer u complicated and systematic Rule, His request 
was based on the simple desire to live like Christ. "The cardinals 
were amazed. Amazed that anyone should really take Christ at His 
word. Some laughed cynically; others shook their heads, admir- 
ingly, but doubtingly; others suggested that they must be directed 
towards one of the ancient orders : what was good enough for Ben- 
edict should be good enough for them."^ He was given permission 
to preach. But he would not allow the order to be written. All he 
asked for was consent and approval by word of mouth. How sim- 
ilar indeed must have been his words with his companions on the 
trip to and from Rome if they could be compared with the discus- 
sion of the small group of eight at Schwarzenau in 1708. 

Christ came into Francis' life in a very definite and real way. One 
day Francis was trying to figure out his problems of life. He was 
praying in a wayside chapel. Somewhere in that chapel of San 
Damiano that day the words were heard, "Francis, go and repair 
My church, which as you see is falling into ruin." Exultant he 
jumped up. By this miracle Christ had clearly accepted him. He 
had a Master to follow and love, in whose service no danger could 
be too great. He really and actually loved Christ — a Christ as vivid 
and warm as Leo and Clare. He loved Him, not in the way of duty, 
but in the way of young love. Therefore the agony of Calvary was 
something terrible to him and the thought lived with him always, 
"I do not suffer enough."'^ Certainly the "living Christ was the 
creed" of Brother Francis. He lives up better than we to our ideal 
that each member should have a real evangelical conversion: should 
see Christ and choose to follow Him, Francis was forever going on 
dangerous missions to preach the Gospel of Christ just as our mis- 
sionaries often risk their safety in the foreign native fields of prim- 
itive lands and the war-torn lands of civilization. Has their motiva- 
tion been because they wanted to share the pain of the crucified 
Christ? 



3. Dubois, L., St. Francis of Assisi, Social Reformer, p. 120. 

4. Raymond, E., In the Ste{ys of St. Francis, p. 109. 

5. Ibid., pp. 45, 209. 



BROTHER FRANCIS 133 

The second basis of foundation for the Dunkers according to 
Brother Kurtz is that "the New Testament is the rule of faith and 
practice." For both the Dunkers and Francis this is almost insep- 
arable with the basis of belief in Christ as the center. When finally 
the Church did get Francis to write a Rule, it was merely a con= 
glomeration of scripture quotations from the New Testament tem- 
pered and flourished all the way through with the fanciful love of 
Brother Francis. He accepted Christ's suggestions to His disci- 
ples almost literally. He and his friars left all behind them and 
went from community to community. We Dunkers do not take 
that passage literally, but there are many passages we do. For in- 
stance our love feast is an actual re-enactment of the drama pre- 
sented in tile Gospels. This would appeal very much to Brother 
Francis because it was based on the New Testament account, be- 
cause it was following the life of Christ as an example and because 
it v/as drama. 

Then Brother Kurtz outlines our Dunker "ideals." First is 
"Peace." He could not have done better to fit into our comparison 
with Brother Francis. His was ever a life of peace. First is "peace 
with God." Brother Francis' whole life was one of seeking unity 
with God. From his periods of unity with God, or in other words 
peace with God which is necessary for unity, he attained a peace 
in his own heart which he then tried to spread among all men. 
This follows our outline exactly. After "peace with God" we list 
"peace of God in human hearts" and then "peace with our fellow- 
men." In this latter Brother Francis was indeed a master and 
marvellously successful. His success here proves that he had the 
previous two experiences or he could not have done the wonderful 
things he did. 

On one occasion the bishop and the podesta of Assisi were hav- 
ing a quarrel. It was late in Francis' life. He had earlier settled 
wars between various city states of Italy. Now he was too feeble 
to come to the scene himself. But he wrote a poem and used his 
brothers to carry his words to the enemies. "The script ready, he 
sent a messenger to both parties to tell them that Brother Francis 
wanted them to assemble in the courtyard of the bishop's palace. 
He had something for them to hear. Strange inversion of power 
here! Nearly twenty years earlier, magistrates and bishop had 



134 SCHWARZENAU 

been summoning Francis, and in the bishop's case to the same pal- 
ace; now Francis an empty vagrant, possessing nothing in the world 
except his clothes was summoning them, and without hesitation they 
came."° The enemies listened together to "The Canticle to the 
Sun." In this simple poem Francis had put himself, his own spirit. 
The men who knew him could not help but catch it. They fell in 
each other's arms and the quarrel which had been on the verge of 
hostilities ceased. Such indeed is the ideal of us Dunkers. We have 
been hauled into the courts and now sent oft naked to the hills. 
Will we have earned the right in twenty years to return and summon 
those who summoned us and sit around a table of friendship with 
them and their enemies to create a living peace? 

Francis lived in a world of war also. Nor could he stay at home 
without doing something to attempt to bring Christ to the front to 
stop the killing and destruction. In his day the wars were being 
fought for the tomb and in the name of Christ which is not too far 
different from today when they are being fought for democracy, the 
so-called spirit of Christ. Either one is just as great a hypocrisy. 
Francis went out to the actual battle lines of the Crusades. "The 
idea had been the result of the victory of the Christian armies at 
Las Navas in Spain. In July, 1212, they had overthrown the Moor- 
ish power with such a roar of collapse as resounded through the 
Catholic world. To Francis this reverberating victory must have 
meant, first, a thrill of delight, and then an outrush of pity for the 
fallen foe. And so the ne\Y idea leapt up in him. Why not try for 
a change to win the infidels by love? You could do nothing — noth- 
ing at all — by all this hate. xAnd nothing — nothing in the end — 
by force. All his sight and all his experience told him that this was 
true of individual men: it must be true also of peoples. Force and 
violence and vindictive punishment only hardened their recalci- 
trance. Forgiveness and the refusal to punish or hurt them and the 
persistent returning of good for evil, broke their hostility down — 
slowly but very surely. In the long run force failed as surely as 
love conquered. One day, perhaps, the Church would really be- 
lieve that its founder had been right; and in the meantime it was 
for Him to act out His teaching before the world and prove it 
true. He would go on his own crusade. He would send his army. 

6. Ibid., p. 322. 



BROTHER FRANCIS 135 

An army in grey frocks carrying nothing but the weapons of the 
Master, which were love, persuasion, patience, and faith in the 
goodness of men. He would go into the camps of the Saracens 
and call them brothers — "Good morning, good people." He 
would go to Syria or Egypt where their great men were to be 
found. If they martyred him; no matter, that would be the be- 
ginning of something. Something that would work."'^ Francis 
did go to the infidels. Incidentally he found on the way that per- 
haps the Christian ( ?) armies needed more teaching of love than 
the infidels. But the native charm_ of Brother Francis plus his 
power which he drew by communion with God did have som.e 
effect on the Sultan. He made a footprint in the sands. The 
Christians soon trampled it out with their spurred boots and 
washed it away with blood. But his brothers continued to min- 
ister to the soldiers of the Crusades on both sides in their hope 
that they could do the impossible. Do you not wish the Brethren 
Service Committee could send Brother Francis to Asia or Europe 
today? 

After Brother Kurtz suggests that we Dunkers want "no war 
with its hate and bloodshed" he next suggests that we believe in no 
force in religion." Even "in meeting the infidels, Francis' stable 
resolve was, 'I will not fight them nor force them nor argue. I will 
teach by example rather than by word. I will not dispute like a 
pamphleteer, but just create mv vision like an artist creates and leave 
it for those who can see.' As Celano put it, Francis' method was 
'to make a tongue of his whole body.' "^ 

Next we Dunkers believe in "no litigation in pagan courts for 
selfish purposes." One time Brother Francis mentioned his atti- 
tude toward courts in a conversation with Bishop Guido: "My 
lord Bishop," he said, "if we had possessions, we should need 
weapons to defend them. Possessions produce quarrels and law- 
suits, and these are the opposite of the love of God and our 
neighbor. For this reason I and my brothers, who desire to live 
only in love, are resolved to own no property whatever in the 
world. We are going to trust completely in God to provide us 



7. Ibid., p. 164. 

8. Ibid., p. 208. 



136 SCHWARZENAU 

with a roof at night and food by day."" What closer agreement 
to Dunker thinking could we get here? Except that the disavowal 
of property goes a Httle more in extreme this might have been 
Brother Hays talking to Abe Lincohi. Therefore we can pass 
Brother Francis on two more questions of his entrance exam. He 
was a very positive pacifist. He opposed wealth and property 
about one hundred ninety-nine per cent more than we Dunkers. 

On the ideal of temperance I am sure that Francis would en- 
dorse that "the body has a sacred purpose, hence must be pure 
and free from all that injures it: temperance in all that is good; 
and abstinence from all that is evil." Dubois says just this when 
he says for Francis, "Brother body was the creature of God and 
as such had all of Francis' sympathy. Yet in his mind it was 
always subordinate to the higher power in man — the soul. . . . 
Francis instinctively saw the dignity of the human soul. Through 
the body he tried to reach the soul. When he blamed his brethren 
for having refused an alms to the brigands, it was because he saw 
in the alms the first step toward spiritual reform. The body was 
to be kept in subjection or nourished according to the needs of 
the soul."^*' The similarity of these two statements is significant 
and nothing more need be said. 

Then Brother Kurtz says that an important ideal of our Dunk- 
er heritage has' been "the spiritual life or the simple life." This 
he adds is "in contrast with the life of worldliness and luxury 
which has caused the downfall of peoples and nations." I think 
that by this time we surely have Brother Francis right down in 
the amen corner. His every effort and desire was to live on the 
spiritual level, to attain unity with reality, to live with God. He 
also saw that to accomplish this, one must get away from the 
thoughts of this world which will mire one down. As he told the 
Bishop, he opposed anything "which put obstacles of any kind to 
the love of God and our neighbor. This is why we wish to pos- 
sess nothing in this world."" He was living in another world. 
He only used this world as it led to that one. He realized that 
there was nothing essentially evil in worldly things except as they 



9. Ibid., p. 100. 

10. Dubois, L., St. Francis of Assist, Social Reformer, p. 154. 

11. Ibid., p. 43. 



BROTHER FRANCIS 137 

keep one from the spiritual level of life. Therefore he advocated 
a feeling of detachment from all these things if they were pos- 
sessed. However he knew that that is difficult to do. Therefore 
he suggested reducing life to as simple a level as was required 
for each individual to attain this detachment. If the individual 
felt he wanted to go the whole way and live in absolute poverty, 
so much the better. He would then be an example to others, and 
an apostle to the world. 

Riches and material wealth is one form of worldliness. We do 
not realize how m_any of our Dunker customs come from the at- 
tempt to live a life separated from wealth so that we could live 
closer to God. That is why the form of dress was held to. It was 
cheaper. It symbolized the fact that we were not spending lav- 
ishly to clothe our backs. Did you know that your grandpa's 
whiskers were in testimony to the fact that he was separating 
himself from the costly habit of shaving? He was a good sand- 
wich advertisement on every sidewalk to the fact that here was a 
man who was turning aside from wealth to come to God. Of 
course you know that all the discussion and tension at Annual 
Meeting a half century ago about whether to charge for meals 
was not because they did not have enough money to buy their 
meals. It was because they did not want to be worldly enough 
and have enough to do with money to run a restaurant. How this 
reminds us of Brother Francis calling in his five thousand broth- 
ers for a general chapter meeting without making a single prep- 
aration for housing or feeding them. How Cardinal Ugolino did 
blow off then. I think though that I would give up having the 
pleasure of seeing that scene at the Chapter of Mats if I could 
have seen its duplicate at Annual Meetings around the time of the 
"divide." 

On this matter of wealth I think that maybe Brother Francis 
used a little more discretion than some of us later Dunkers have. 
I do think that Brother Mack and some of the early brethren did 
see It about the way he did. But during the days following I think 
many times we have acclaimed wealth as inherently evil of itself. 
Brother "Francis never attacked riches in themselves as intrin- 
sically evil. He understood that they were a source of much trou- 
ble and misery. The rich should avoid those excesses, lordly man- 



138 SCHWARZENAU 

ners and luxurious life, which perhaps more than the difference 
of fortune and condition vexed and embittered the poor and the 
lowly. . . . Francis' object was to decrease the wants in order 
to increase happiness. The brothers were happier than other 
men because they had fewer wants and desires than others. 
Tomas Celano says that 'possessing nothing, they were attached 
to nothing and feared the loss of nothing. Distracted by no care, 
without any trouble or anxiety, they expected the morrow without 

C ' "12 

rear. 

Brother Francis realized "the importance of attention as di- 
recting desire, the power of the whole-hearted desire. Poverty 
was a means of avoiding division of desire . . . willingness was 
essential to poverty, for poverty without it was to no avail. "^^ 
Poverty made it possible to think on the spiritual things. He did 
not have to come home at night and worry about how the books 
would balance. "Whoever was free at heart from all material 
servitude, whoever was decided to live without hoarding, every 
rich man who was willing to labor with his hands and loyally dis- 
tribute all that he did not consume in order to constitute the com- 
mon fund which Brother Francis call 'The Lord's Table,' every 
poor man who was willing to work, free to resort in the strict 
measure of his wants to this table of the Lord, these were at that 
time true Franciscans. It was a social revolution. "^^ That was 
the Lord's Table at St. Mary of the Angels, but it was consumed 
by the selfish flames of institutionalism which were too well fanned 
by Ugolino and Brother Elias. We, too, had that table of the Lord 
at Schwarzenau. Has every splinter of it been burned by the slow 
smouldering of adaptation to the industrial revolution and the leap- 
ing flames of denominationalism? I wish I knew. 

This simplicity leading to spirituality was evident in both the 
Franciscan and Dunker preachers. Brother Wieand suggests in a 
recent article that "some years ago before our men knew anything 
except their Bibles, but knew their Bibles, especially the New Tes- 
tament, thoroughly well and took the twelfth chapter of Romans 
for example and gave an exposition of it making the applications of 

12. Ihid., pp. 193, 196. 

13. Nicholson, The Mysticism of St. Francis, chap. v. 

14. Sabatier, Life of St. Francis, p. 156. 



BROTHER FRANCIS 139 

it to everyday living . . . that preaching was as good as anything 
that can be furnished. "^'^ Dubois similarly says of the Franciscans 
that "the preaching of the new apostles, if indeed it may be called 
preaching was very simple. 'The man of God did not properly 
preach to the people, but when passing through towns and castles, 
simply exhorted thcni to love God and fear Him and to do penance 
for their sins.' . . . Preaching . . . was not the stiff, official, or 
scholastic preaching which was customary at that time, but rather 
popular appeals. The desire of Francis was that his companions 
preaching to the people and for the people, in the streets or fields 
as well as in the churches wherever men could be gathered to- 
gether, should preach from the heart, should preach peace, char- 
ity. Christian happiness, employing simple ordinary language un- 
derstood by all."^*^ Yes, 1 believe we would be very content to 
have Brother Francis preach at First Church or Prairie Creek. 

No one, not even remarkable Brother Francis, can jump up in 
the air and stay there unless he has grasped something above him 
and holds on to it for his support. But Francis when he leaped up 
into the spiritual atmosphere did find God and held on to what 
he had found. The ensuing picture is indeed as fascinating as 
the man on the flying trapeze, for Brother Francis was an artist. 
"It is bound to be interesting . . . because his life story ... is 
just about the most human and the most moving in the libraries of 
Christendom. There never was a more dramatic tale lying to the 
hand of the novelist . . . there never was a saint less well read in 
the lives of the saints, never a teacher more happily ignorant of most 
of the teachings of the Church that he loved, never a preacher more 
likely to be tripped up over a passage in the Bible; he just did with 
simplicity and ignorantly what you and I won't do; he dared in 
the end to let the Real come through. He dared to let the eternal 
truth in him conquer all; which is simply to say he let the surging 
love in him determine his every movement and thought; and if a 
man does this, he must stir up drama like dust at every step."^'^ 
How spiritual! How simple! How easy it is to live a spiritual life 
after all. You don't have to have even a high school diploma to 

15. Wieand, A. C, "The Greatest Preachers in the World," Gosp. Mess., Apr. 25, 
1942. 

16. Dubois, St. Francis of Assist, Social Reformer, pp. 42, 49. 

17. Raymond, In the Steps of St. Francis, p. 7. 



140 SCHWARZENAU 

live that way. Such has been the claim of Francis and Dunkers. 
But you do have to have a spiritual vision and live according to it 
even to the uttermost. "But to give up all! Oh, the curse of being 
granted spiritual vision. Fame must go, and the delight of dress 
und ostentation, and parade and the pleasures of the flesh — yes, if 
he were to follow to the farthest point he could see, if he were to 
respond to the most distant call, he must give up the sweetness of 
having his own bride. . . . But it is one thing to see a vision and 
another to amass the courage to create it. Wondering if he could 
ever, ever conquer his need of applause, his love of self-decora- 
tion, and his fastidious recoil from dirt and disease; he wandered 
more frequently alone. He took to climbing the mountains till he 
was far away from men and alone with the leaves. He found a 
cave where he could sit with his thoughts or kneel unperceived in 
prayer. He was praying for strength to conquer the body and let 
the spirit win."^^ Both Francis and the Dunkers have leaped away 
from worldly things to a vision of spiritual reality here on earth. 
Each have seen the method as being through the simple life. 

The Dunkers have opposed education as being an elaboration 
not necessary and even detracting from spiritual life. "Francis 
saw all round him something like a craze for the possession of 
learning. The first half of the thirteenth century was marked by a 
kind of gold rush for the ornaments of learning. . . . He saw that 
learning is not wisdom because wisdom comes only when the appre- 
hensions of the heart and the spirit are joined to those of the mind. 
... 'A man's knowledge is as great as his deeds,' he said. . . . 
He saw the same dangers in the accumulation of learning as in the 
accumulation of property: pride, jealousy, and separation. They 
had not donned his habit and cord for this. They had come to per- 
fect themselves in love, not learning. Love would teach them all 
they needed for their work. Love alone could know God: 'By love 
alone He can be gotten and holden, by thought never.' Real love 
taught in a flash what a hundred volumes could never teach a man. 
'Only those that do the will shall know the doctrine'; and Francis 
wanted his men to speak with authority and not as the scribes. 
And lastly love alone could win men. 'There is a defense against 
learning, but there is no defense against love. . . , Not by what 

18. Ibid., pp. 27, 32. 



BROTHER FRANCIS 141 

a brother minor argues will the people be won, but by what he 
is,' "^® Could there be any more appealing statements to a true 
Dunker spirit? 

The red letter fault for Dunker discretion is none other than 
PRIDE! Never let it be said that any good Dunker has ever been 
proud of anything. Utter humility is the ideal by which we can 
attain spiritual life. "Brother Francis avoided praise and accepted 
blame. He condemned spiritual envy as proceeding from the lower 
self. He fought against the spiritual complacency"''^ which brings 
a decline in spiritual life. Complacency comes when we think we 
are just right, when we have pride. Indeed "it would be a mistake 
to take Francis for one of those inspired ones who rush into action 
upon the strength of unexpected revelations and thanks to their 
faith in their own infallibility overawe the multitude. On the con- 
trary he was filled with real humility an.d If he believed that God 
reveals Himself in prayer, he never absolved himself from the duty 
of reflection nor even from reconsidering his decisions.""^ Thus 
he even carried his humility to his spiritual life. Laurence Hous- 
man picturesquely reflects this attitude by the words of Brother 
Juniper: "O Lord, what am I going to do with myself? If they'd 
cook me and eat me, I'd be useful to 'em for one day at any rate. 
But I'm like a cart off its wheels and stuck in a rut, and in the way 
just."22 

The next ideal which Brother Kurtz outlines for us is that of 
"brotherhood." This expresses itself in absolute belief in "no 
slavery and no caste; equality in all human relations." Dubois 
says about Brother Francis on this matter that "while he adm.itted 
the distinction of classes in the social order he saw that the mem- 
bers of one class were abusing their power and authority to op- 
press the members of a weaker class. The lords were treating the 
serfs as slaves rather than as brothers and Francis reminded them 
of the duty of masters to their servants. The superiors of the or- 
der were not to be called abbots nor priors, but ministers to show 
that they must be the servants of those who were under their care 

19. Ihid., p. 196. 

20. Nicholson, The Mysticistn of St. Francis, chap. ii. 

21. Sabatier, op. cit., p. 89. 

22. Housman, Little Plays of St. Francis, Vol. II, p. 122. 



142 SCHWARZENAU 

and in this way they were to give to the world an example of the 
true Christian relations which must exist between the higher and 
lower classes. The lords were received into the Third Order on 
the same conditions as the serfs and the serfs were their equals in 
all that concerned the administration and privileges of the order. 
... At the same time that this association brought strength to 
the people it inculcated on them the duty of solidarity in a manner 
stronger than ever before. The guilds had brought together men 
of the same trade, but between the different corporations bitter 
rivalries often existed. The Third Order united all men; not only 
the members of the municipality, but also cities and provinces and 
even nations were leagued together so that the Third Order was 
really an international association which showed to all men their 
duty to unite in the cause of good, in opposition to the selfishness 
and the cruelty of the favored few."'^ 

Then Brother Kurtz says that the brotherhood is expressed in 
"the family spirit in worship and in life." Francis will have little 
trouble understanding this. He organized his brothers as a family 
if you can say that he organized them at all (most of the organiza- 
tion was by others). He just let them live together and they grew 
together. Is not that the way a family does? This Brotherhood 
and Fellowship are predominate factors and I would almost say 
the determining factors of success in both the Franciscan and 
Dunker movements.-^ 

Finally Brother Kurtz suggests that the Dunkers believe in "re- 
ligion as life." It is "in contrast with religion as mere creeds and 
cults; the Christian religion means oneness, likeness, harmony with 
Christ." Did the fellowship at Schwarzenau come up the bank 
from the Eder; go into Brother Alexander's front room; sit a- 
round the table and write down a creed by which to live or a con- 
stitution for these eight charter members? No, they just lived 
together in closer and closer unity with each other and with their 
God. Ernest Raymond says of Brother Francis that after his con- 
version "he filled up with energy. He had the spiritual energy to 
lift weights which yesterday he could hardly have moved from 



23. Dubois, St. Francis of Assisi, Social Reformer, pp. 190, 193. 

24. For further detail see paper ; "The Individual and Fellowship Approach to So- 
cial Change," Vernon Miller. 



BROTHER FRANCIS 143 

the ground. He had the physical energy to drive himself to any- 
thing. Now this access of energy is a significant phenomenon, 
most worthy of emphasis. It derived, I feel certain, from his 
achievement of a sense of unity with the whole world. He had 
destroyed that hampering draining separateness and felt one with 
everyone everywhere.""^ I am sure that Brother Francis would 
place much more emphasis on his unity of feeling with Christ as 
leading to his unity with others. He would have said that unity with 
reality and others is unity with Christ. But for a modern novelist 
Brother Raymond comes along even farther than we might expect. 

The desire of Francis was not to build up or support dogmas a- 
bout Christ but to live like Christ had lived. Thus it is very plain 
that for him religion is life. He never wanted to write out a Rule 
for his order; he just wanted them to follow his example as he 
followed Christ's example. When he did write out Rules, it was 
only under protest and their content was merely putting into words 
the example of Christ. 

Such a life of unity with Christ could not but lead to great ac- 
complishments and experiences by the man who had so lived. The 
stories of these accomplishments tell us that Francis performed 
miracles of healing and blessing to those who were in need. The 
stories of these experiences tell us that once on the Isola Maggiore, 
Francis fasted the forty days of Lent while in deep meditation; and 
that another time on the rugged slopes of Mount La Verna he had 
such close unity with Christ that he went through Christ's sufferings 
with Him and when he came back he had the stigmata on his body. 
Some call these stories of the miracles, the fast and the stigmata 
mere legends from the Imaginarv minds of the thirteenth century. 
I agree with Brother Raymond when he says, "I can argue with 
you the probability of La Verna's miracle. I can tell you that for 
me the miracle is in the spiritual moment attained to and not in its 
physical accompaniment. And yet I hardly think it a miracle at all 
because I do like to hope that all men will one day attain to this 
transcendental consciousness of unity with the One who is the 
All. That the agony of Francis passing into unity should have 
left upon his body the scars of the wounds of Christ seems to me 
beautiful in its aptness, but secondary in its importance and not 



25. Raymond, In the Steps of St. Francis, p. 41. 



U4 SCHWARZENAU 

physiologically strange. When men of science, materially mind- 
ed, tell me that it is quite possible to raise blisters on the skin of 
the hypnotized subject by touching him with a finger and telling 
him it is a red-hot iron, I am not greatly troubled by the stigmata 
of Francis, nor by the fact that though they are the first recorded 
instance of the phenomenon, they are not the last."^^ Here indeed 
is a man whom wc Dunkers could well take as the very ideal of 
shoAving that religion is life; that it is not the sacrament, but the 
experience; that such a Christian life can be carried to oneness, 
likeness, and harmony with Christ. 

In conclusion there are a few other things in our heritage which 
we might just mention as being very similar to elements of Brother 
Francis' movement. First, our free ministry is very similar to his 
desire to keep the brothers from becoming a hierarchy. They were 
only to take wliat they needed to live as alms from begging, but they 
were even to work for their needs if it was possible. Secondly, we 
have already mentioned one aspect of similarity between our An- 
nual Meeting and the General Chapter meetings. On their whole 
structure, purpose, and development these are very much alike. And 
finally, our rural culture and appreciation of nature is very like the 
love which Francis had for the out of doors, mountains, trees, ani- 
mals, and birds. This was one of the great impulses of his life. 

Would Saint Francis make a good Dunker? Shall we baptize 
him? Yes, I believe he would make a better Dunker than most of 
us. But please do not baptize him. We might kill the possibility of 
the powerful influence of his spirit. If we let his spirit get into us, 
it may do things. With Schwarzenau pulling on our baptized hand 
and Francis pulling on our other we could be led to Christ. I see 
the possibility that such a pull might lead us to the positive applying 
of Christ to our day which we have been seeking. Christ in the 
C.P.S. Camps. Christ in labor and industry. Christ in agriculture. 
Christ in business. Christ in the press. Christ in the movies. Christ 
in education. Christ in government: local, national and interna- 
tional. Christ in economics. Yes, Christ in our church. 

26. Ibid., p. 307. 



APPENDIX* 

Ideals of the Church of the Brethren 

D. W. Kurtz 

A. Foundation 
I. The living Christ is the creed of the Church. 
II. The New Testament is the Rule of faith and practice. 

B. Ideals 
I. Peace. 

1. Peace with God. 

2. Peace of God in human hearts. 

3. Peace with our fellow men. 

a. No war with its hate and bloodshed. 

b. No force in religion. 

c. No litigation in pagan courts for selfish purposes. 

II. Temperance. 

1. The body has a sacred purpose, hence must be pure and free from, 
all that injures it. 

2. Temperance in all that is good. 

3. Abstinence from all that is evil. 

III. The spiritual life or the simple life. 

1 . In contrast with the life of worldliness and luxury which has caused 
the downfall of peoples and nations. 

IV. Brotherhood. 

1. No slavery. Church of the Brethren always against slavery. 

2. No caste. Equality in all human relations. 

3. The family spirit in worship and in life. 

y. Religion as life. 

1. In contrast with religion as mere creeds and cults. 

2. The Christian religion means oneness, likeness, harmony with 
Christ. 



* This is in essence the outline of the paper. 



145 



CHARITY IN THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

Mary Schaeffer 

The coming of Constantine to the throne at Rome meant a vic- 
tory for Christianity in so far as having to endure persecution was 
concerned. The Church never was the same as the early Church 
after this. The simplicity of the early organization was gone. 
Wealth was poured into the Church by being allowed to have prop- 
erty. The charity which had been congregational and an expression 
of love for humanity, was institutionalized, and the motive back of 
acts of charity was changed. 

The world of that day was a perishing world. The pomp of the 
court took a lot of money. This in turn caused heavy taxation, and 
then land had to be sold for taxes. Soldiers were farming for them- 
selves to make money and thus did not resist the invasion of the 
barbarians. People flocked to the cities because they were afraid 
of robber hordes. This only increased the misery. The country 
became desolate. There was much misery and suffering. People 
sold their freedom for bread to eat. Slaves could no longer be sold, 
and became serfs, but freemen also became serfs for they could 
not leave the land they tilled. 

"Only in the region of the Church was there liberty. If anyone 
entered the service of the Church or became a monk, settled in the 
desert, went into a monastery, he was free; he shook off the whole 
burden at once. Hence that pressure into the Church's service, that 
fleeing from the world, that rapid increase of monasticism, until 
the State there too intervened, there too drew limits, forbidding 
entrance into the service of the Church or into a monastery to one, 
and uniting it with certain conditions to another."^ 

There was wealth but it was unequally distributed. There was no 
one to hinder the oppression of the poor but the Church. Inequal- 
ity reigned. Then followed the invasions of the barbarians and 
the country was left desolate. Misery was universal. The State 
did not help the poor; it was left to the Church. In fact the Church 
was at times blamed for having caused beggary by their almsgiv- 
ing, because the people did not see that their government was fall- 



1. Ulhorn, Charity in the Ancient World, p. 241. 

146 



CHARITY 147 

Ing into ruins, and with it their country. The Doctrine of Alms- 
giving was preached as "An offering to God by the rich, a gift from 
God to the poor."^ 

Early Period 

"As a result of the freedom and social importance which the 
Church obtained through the victory of Constantine, she was called 
upon to relieve the distress not merely of her own children but of 
the whole population."^ 

The reason these needs were so great was due to the relentless 
and grinding usury of money lenders, corruption, cruelty and ex- 
travagance of civil officials and then the invasion of the hordes 
from the North. Where were the moneys to come from for all 
this charity? In the third and fourth century the sources of relief 
were from the oblations at mass, the collections on fast days, and 
other extraordinary collections, but these were not so fruitful as 
in the earlier days. There were some new sources of relief. The 
emperors and the wealthy gave great gifts to the Church. Through 
wills and through deathbed conversions much was given to the 
Church. The Church referred to such gifts as "Patrimony of the 
Poor." The relief for the poor became a primary function of the 
Church at this time. 

Many of the leaders and bishops did much teaching on the sub- 
ject of almsgiving. Athanasius in the Life of Anthony in speaking 
of the effect of a good life on demons says, "At any rate they fear 
the fasting, the sleeplessness, the prayers, the meekness, the quiet- 
ness, the contempt of money and vainglory, the humility, the love 
of the poor, the alms . . . their piety towards Christ."^ In an 
Easter letter Athanasius says, "Let us remember the poor and not 
forget kindness to strangers; above all let us love God with all our 
soul, and might, and strength, and our neighbor as ourselves."^ 
In another letter he says, "Now we are clothed with Him, when we 
love virtue, and are enemies to wickedness, when we exercise our- 
selves in temperance and mortify lasciviousness, when we love 
righteousness before iniquity, when we honor sufficiency, and have 
strength of mind when we do not forget the poor, but open our 



2. Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. HI, p. 597. 

3. Ibid., p. 596. 

4. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IV, p. 204. 

5. Ibid., p. 510. 



148 SCHWARZENAU 

doors to all men, when we assist humble-mindedness but hate 
pride."« 

Jerome (397 A.D.) commends Pammachius, a Roman senator 
who became a monk and lived a life of self-denial upon the death 
of his wife Paulina, "All that formerly ministered to luxury is now 
at the service of virtue. That blind man holding out his hand, and 
often crying aloud when there is none to hear, is the heir of Pau- 
lina, is co-heir with Pammachius. That poor cripple who can 
scarcely drag himself along, owes his support to a tender girl. 
Those doors which of old poured forth crowds of visitors, are now 
beset only by the wretched. One suffers from dropsy, big with 
death; another mute and without means of begging, begs the more 
appealingly because he cannot beg; another maimed from his child- 
hood implores an alms which he may not himself enjoy. . . . Such 
is the bodyguard which accompanies Pammachius wherever he 
walks; in the persons of such he ministers to Christ Himself; and 
their squalor serves to whiten his soul. . . . Other husbands scat- 
ter the graves of their wives with roses, violets, lilies and purple 
flowers . . . but Pammachius also waters the holy ashes and the 
revered bones of Paulina, but it is with the balm of almsgiving."^ 
This is one of the finest tributes to charity as a memorial to one 
who has passed on, that one can find, and shows that even in the 
fourth century they found better things than to say it with flowers 
after death. Many memorials were thus given. 

Schaff in discussing the charity of this period says, "Private char- 
ity continued to be exercised in proportion to the degree of vitality 
in the Church. The great fathers and bishops of the fourth and 
fifth centuries set an illustrious example of plain living and high 
thinking, of self-denial and liberality, and were never weary in 
their sermons and writings in enjoining the duty of charity."^ 
There are many instances of real sacrifice among them. Pope 
Gregory the Great was a father to the poor; he felt himself respon- 
sible when anyone starved to death. One fourth of the Church's in- 
come was given to charity at his instigation. However, the admin- 
istration of relief in this period mostly remained in the hands of the 
bishops, assisted by the priest, deacons, subdeacons, and deacon- 



6. Ibid., p. 516. 

7. Ibid., Vol. VI, p. 136. 

8. Schaff, History of the Christian Church, p. 357. 



CHARITY 149 

esses. There were certain houses from which relief was given; these 
were called deaconiae. Up to this time the vigilance of deacons and 
deaconesses seemed to have been fairly successful in preventing a 
waste of charity upon beggars and idlers. So efficient had been their 
work that even the State as well as the Church recognized the title 
of "father of the poor and protector of the widows and orphans" 
for the bishops. But as time went on the giving of charity passed on 
to other hands and later was institutionalized. 

"Perhaps the most striking justification of the common claim 
that the bishops are the proper recognized helpers and guardians of 
the poor, the widow, and the orphan, is found in their readiness to 
convert the communion plate into money for the distressed. Tt is 
better to save living souls than lifeless metals . . . the ornament of 
the sacraments is the redemption of captives' are the words which 
Ambrose defended himself against a charge of sacrilege. Ref- 
uge from the tax-burdened world was afforded by monasteries 
which too often are judged, not by the circumstances which called 
them into being, but by the abuses which attended their decay. . . . 
But with superior organization waning, individual effort disap- 
peared; a steward discharged the philanthropic duties of the bish- 
ops, deacons, and deaconesses; these waited less on the poor and 
more on the worship of the Church."^ 

Theodosius was eight years old when Atticus was in the third 
year of the presidency over the Church of Constantinople; his was a 
most worthy record. "He was made all things to all men." The 
almsgiving flourished throughout his administration. He made con- 
tributions and transmitted as is brought out in the following letter: 
"Atticus to Calliopius — salutations in the Lord. I have been in- 
formed that there are in your city ten thousand necessitous persons 
whose condition demands the compassion of the pious. And I say 
ten thousand designating their multitude, rather than using the num- 
ber precisely. As therefore I have received a sum of money from 
him who with a bountiful hand is wont to supply faithful stewards; 
and since it happens that some are pressed by want, that those who 
have may be proved, who do not minister to the needy take, my 
friend, these three hundred pieces of gold and dispose of them as 
you think fit. It will be your care, I doubt not, to distribute to such 
as are ashamed to beg, and not to those who through life have sought 



9. Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. I, p. 595. 



150 SCHWARZENAU 

to feed themselves at others' expense. In bestowing these alms 
make no distinction on religious grounds; but feed the hungry 
whether they agree with us in sentiment or not."^" 

The above might have been written into our modern relief pro- 
gram and expresses high sentiments. Jerome in his one hundred and 
thirtieth letter to Demetrius comments on the sin of covetous and 
giving in this way by using the saying of Jesus to the rich young 
ruler, "Sell that thou hast and give to the poor." Jesus did not com- 
mand it but set the choice before them. Their family was rich; 
therefore he says, "From the time of your dedication to perpetual 
virginity your property is yours no longer; or rather it is now first 
truly yours because it has come to be Christ's. ... It is yours to 
clothe Christ in the poor, to visit Him in the sick, to feed Him in the 
hungry, to shelter Him in the homeless, particularly such as are of 
the household of faith, to support the communities of virgins, to 
take care of God's servants, of those who are poor in the spirit, who 
serve the same Lord day and night, who while they are on earth live 
the angelic life and speak only praises to God. Having food and 
raiment they rejoice and count themselves rich."^^ Here Jerome 
especially teaches to help Christians while Atticus included others. 

Gregory Nazianzen on his mother's and father's death speaks 
thus in giving tribute in their sympathy for the poor. "For he actu- 
ally treated his own property as if it were another's of which he was 
but the steward, relieving poverty as far as he could, and expending 
not only his superfluities but his necessities — a manifest proof of 
love for the poor giving a portion, not only to seven according to 
the injunction of Solomon, but if an eighth came forward, not even 
in his case being niggardly, but more pleased to dispose of his wealth 
than we know others are to acquire it."^- Of his mother he said, 
"What a woman she is ! Not even the Atlantic Ocean, or if there be 
a greater one, could meet her drafts upon it. So great and so bound- 
less is her love of liberality. . . . She not only considers the prop- 
erty which they originally possessed, and what accrued to them 
later, as unable to satisfy her longing, but she would, as I have often 
heard her say, have gladly sold herself and her children to slavery, 
had there been any means of doing so, to expend the proceeds on the 



10. Niccne and Post-Nicene Fathers. Vol. 11, pp. 166, 167. Second Series. Chris- 
tian Lit. Co., Oxford and London, 1890. 

11. Ibid., Vol. VI, pp. 268, 269. 

12. Ibid., Vol. VII, p. 262. 



CHARITY 151 

poor." Being wealthy she could well say so for she still gave but 
it does show a beautiful spirit which one finds through the age in the 
real spiritual Christians. 

Basil in the year 373 A.D. in writing on what he saw at Nicea, 
that one who wanted to live in poverty should limit himself to one 
garment and in giving to the poor, wrote, "No one ought to per- 
mit himself the distribution of his own property, but should leave 
it in the hands of the person entrusted with the duty of managing 
the affairs of the poor, and he proved the point from the Acts of 
the Apostles and by them it was distributed to each as every man 
had need. For he said that experience was needed in order to dis- 
tinguish between cases of genuine need and of mere greedy begging. 
For whoever gives to the afflicted gives to the Lord, and from the 
Lord shall have his reward; but he who gives to every vagabond 
casts to a dog, a nuisance indeed from his importunity, but de- 
serving no pity on the ground of want."^^ 

"Like Cyprian before him and like Augustine after him, Hilary 
insists upon the value of alms in the sight of God. The clothing of 
the naked, the release of the captive plead with God for remission 
of our sins; and the man who redeems his faults by alms is classed 
among those who win His favor, with the perfect in love and the 
blameless in faith. "^^ 

All the Church fathers express the highest of sentiments in help- 
fulness to the poor and to the extent of living in a poor manner 
themselves. 

"Valentinian in 346 A.D. in a proclamation says that the true 
worship consists in helping the poor and in relieving those in neces- 
sity, while he charges the bishops to watch over the poor and save 
them from exactions. Several of the Christian emperors took 
under their special protection houses for the orphan and infirm. 
The code pronounces it a pious duty to support orphan asylums. 
Justinian code speaks of hospitals for mothers. . . . First hos- 
pital is said to have been built in Rome at the end of the fourth 
century. "^'^ 

The strangers, the sick, the homeless poor, the widows, and the 
abandoned children all found refuge in these hospitals as well, in 



13. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VIII, p. 208. 

14. Ibid., Vol. IX, p. 92. 

15. Flick, Rise of the Medie7.'al Church, p. 366. 



152 SCHWARZENAU 

this age. These hospitals did tlie work of hotels, almshouses, and 
asylums. During this time Bishop Anastasius had divided Rome 
into fourteen regions. He founded and endowed deaconries. In 
the sixth century Gregory the Great created seven districts in 
Rome ruled over by seven deacons and an archdeacon with a hos- 
pital in each district. He himself sold his possessions and gave 
the proceeds to charity. Many of the Church fathers did the 
same. One third of the income of the estate belonging to the 
Church at Rome were given over to charity. This model at Rome 
for charitable purposes was copied quite extensively at the other 
places and enlisted the services of many priests, monks, and nuns. 

Some of the founders of these hospitals were Fabiola at Rome; 
St. Pammachius also at Rome; Paulinius in Nola. Poor houses, 
orphanages, and homes for the aged were likewise begun at this 
time. Year by year these increased, 

"Such institutions were spread over Europe with Christianity 
by missionary monks. "^'^ These institutions were planted by it to 
help and comfort the thousands in this period of war, famine, and 
pestilence, and to remain as the choicest heritage to the modern 
from the medieval Church. In theory medieval charity was made 
one of the chief acts of piety, the most certain means of piety, 
the most certain means of salvation, and perhaps emphasized too 
much the benefits to the donor and to his dead relatives, rather 
than to the worthy recipient. 

Before the Middle Ages were really reached, one very impor- 
tant institution was dropped from the Church. That was the 
Agapae. From being a fellowship meal and communion as it was 
in the early Church, the two became separated because of the 
Irregularities which crept in. The meal more and more became 
repasts for the poor which were provided by the rich until at 
length it degenerated into displays of generosity of their provid- 
ers and finally in the fifth century were no longer allowed in the 
churches and was condemned by a council. 

Middle Ages 

"The first important event in the world of charity after the 
reign of Gregory the Great was the deterioration that it suffered 
in Gaul under the Merovingians. Owing to the anarchic social 
and political conditions of the time and the resulting demoraliza- 



CHARITY 153 

tion of the clergy, the poor were all but forgotten, and institutions 
of charity either disappeared or were diverted to other uses. 
Although the monasteries discharged their duties fairly well dur- 
ing the early part of Merovingian period, they became involved 
later on in the general disorder, worldliness, and negligence 
which reached a climax under Charles Martel. Then came the 
great lawgiver Charlemagne, who effected a manifold and far- 
reaching reform. He recovered the Church property that had 
been misappropriated and re-established the law of tithes, the 
fourfold division of Church revenues, the oblations during divine 
service, and the other offerings to the priest for charity, and the 
custom of regarding all the goods of the Church as primarily the 
patrimony of the poor."^" 

Charlemagne made the following legislation regarding char- 
ity in the Middle Ages according to the Catholic Encyclopedia: 

1. Bishop the supreme director of charity administration. 

2. In feudal states charity is in the hands of the benefice. 

3. Feudal lords care for vassals who are needy. 

4. Monasteries to resume their former practice of charity. 

5. Beggars and idlers and vagabonds put to work. 

After the death of Charlemagne his organization of charity fell 
into decay. Feudal lords and unscrupulous spiritual leaders as 
well as incompetent clerics exploited the serfs and neglected the 
poor. Old truths about property and supernatural rewards of 
almsgiving were still taught as well as the expiation of temporal 
punishment for sin. 

"As regards charity in the Middle Ages, it is clear that at no 
period in the past have there been larger gifts to the poor. The 
spirit of Christian liberality was reinforced by the idea that alms- 
giving, and benefactions for religious purposes were in high de- 
gree meritorious. Wealth was poured more and more, without 
stint, into the lap of the Church. Christian lands were dotted 
with monasteries, from whose doors the poor, the sick, and the 
infirm of every sort, were never turned away."^''^ 

"The excessive and unreasoning almsgiving of European coun- 
tries, and the monastic associations of the Middle Ages, are a 
natural reaction from the selfishness of the classic period, and 



16. Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. Ill, p. 597. 

17. Fischer, History of the Christian Church, p. 234. 



154 SCHWARZENAU 

sprang from the fearful economic condition in which Europe 
found itself at the destruction of the Roman Empire. So pro- 
found and apparently remediless were the evils of the civilized 
world, so impossible did It seem then to reach the sources of uni- 
versal calamity, that a humane person, and above all, one filled 
with this new love of God and man, might well think he had done 
enough and the best, in sacrificing all to relieve present misery."^** 

"The history of almsgiving during this period is distinguished 
by two characteristics. The Church was the only channel of char- 
ity; secular government did not undertake to supply the needy or 
to succor the distressed, but left the task to ecclesiastical organ- 
izations. This was the first mark of this epoch. The second was 
the total lack of any attempt to co-ordinate the activities of the 
various agencies by which alms were distributed."'^ 

These authors well state the conditions of the time. Medieval 
charity was often injudicious, because there was such wholesale 
need, and especially in the later period no one was really respon- 
sible. Neither was there anything done about removing the 
causes of poverty and distress that made charity necessary. It 
was considered inevitable. Poverty was also considered an ideal 
condition of a Christian disciple. Existence of the poor was con- 
sidered a blessing because it was a benefit to the giver who often 
gave for a heavenly reward. They considered the renunciation 
of property proof of a special consecration to Christ. 

Many individuals and families of humble rank devoted their 
earnings to help the poor with real self-sacrifice, but there was a 
lack of order; so many institutions were administering charity 
that several of them sometimes helped the same individuals. 

Some of the Penitentials on Almsgiving 

"Alms shall not be accepted from any christian who has been 
excommunicated. It is not permitted to the Church to accept 
Alms from pagans.""" 

One of the penances of Finnian upon swearing a false oath 
was never to do it again, release a slave, or the value of a slave 



18. Brace, Gesti-Christi, p. 104. 

19. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, p. 384. 

20. Canons of St. Patric. p. 78. 



CHARITY 155 

must be given to the poor and needy. Alms to the poor must be 
given as a penance for those who commit adultery.^^ 

"For capital offences liberal alms are to be given and fasts 
kept," Bede. 

Roman: "If anyone wishes to give alms for his soul's wealth 
which was the product of booty, if he has already done penance, 
he has the right to give it."^^ 

In Iceland a rich man received harder punishment than the poor. 

Early Welsh law: "If anyone makes strife in front of a Church, 
he is compelled to pay one silver pound, and this shall be given in 
alms to the needy." 

Many cases of alms were used as a substitute for other penances; 
rich people sometimes to the half of their wealth as did Zacchaeus. 

These are a few of the penitential rules in some of the orders in 
their relation to almsgiving. Fasting, prayer, and other forms of 
penance were replaced by almsgiving proportional to tlie offence oi 
the penitent. Sometimes for the gravest sins there had to be a total 
renunciation of possessions, and the sinner had to enter a monas- 
tery. These things might have helped indulgences along in the 
thirteenth century, perhaps not in that they could not be used for 
deadly sins. 

Monasteries and Charity 

In the three centuries following the death of Charlemagne, most 
of the work of relieving the poor was transferred to the monas- 
teries from the clergy because most of the Christian life was cen- 
tered in the monasteries. Gifts were given to the monasteries in- 
stead of to the clergy. The monks treated their tenants more hu- 
manely than any other landholders. The monastery was a center 
for the rich and the poor, the high and the low, of innocent youth 
and of repentant age. They were also refuges for the spiritual or 
corporal miserable. 

When anyone entered the monastery, they gave up their all. 
These possessions were put into a general fund. "From money so 
gathered the poor were relieved, the sick supplied with food and 
medicine, schools were started for children and hospitality provided 
for travellers. This charity was guided by the wisdom which alone 



21. Ibid., p. 91. 

22. Ibid., p. 105. 



156 SCHWARZENAU 

could make it truly effective. It was administered by a special offi- 
cial called the Almoner and he was bidden to select carefully the 
recipients of his alms, and to spare the feelings of those who had 
seen better days, to visit the sick, and to give no relief permanently 
without consulting the head of the monastery.""^ 

Thus the monasteries until the time when their system of charity 
went into decay tried to be as careful as were the deacons of the 
first three centuries of Christianity. But conditions being so much 
worse, the task was so much greater than in the earlier congrega- 
tional giving. The monks were very industrious and made work 
popular and the proceeds of much of their labor went to help the 
poor, for they themselves lived very simply. 

Some of the orders most prominent in helping the poor were the 
Benedictines, Cistercians, Prernonstratensians, Dominicans, and the 
Franciscans. The porters daily distributed relief at the gate, and if 
there were those who could not come they were given help in their 
homes. 

There were the Alexian Brothers which were a lay association 
who took as their work that of burying the dead. They formed 
a religious organization in 1458 and they still have hospitals. The 
community of St. Anthony of Venice in the eleventh century min- 
istered to a disease known as St. Anthony's fire. The Trinitarians 
in the thirteenth century made it their work to ransom captives 
from the Mohammedans. Bridge Builders made bridges, roads, 
and inns for the poor and sick travellers, and protected the mer- 
chants and travellers against robbers. Every need seemed to be 
supplied by these brotherhoods. There was also the brotherhood of 
the Holy Spirit which built hospitals. The Crusaders also built 
hospitals; these lasted many years, but their usefulness came to an 
end by the time of the Reformation. There were leper houses to 
care for the leprosy brought by the Crusaders. A military order 
of St. Lazarus was organized to meet this plague, but having fin- 
ished its task and becoming demoralized was dissolved by the Pope 
at the end of the fifteenth century. 

Yet others still carried on to some extent; the diocesan clergy 
continued to collect and distribute the means of charitable relief and 
supplied those in the cities who were overlooked by the monasteries, 
hospitals, and guilds. In the country because the feudal lords were 



23. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, p. 384. 



CHARITY 157 

responsible, the help of the clergy was confined to strangers. In 
England the system of parish relief continued with efficiency till the 
Reformation. 

"During the fourteenth and more frequently the fifteenth cen- 
tury, however many abuses got a foothold in the richer monas- 
teries, avarice, luxurious living, lavish entertainment of guests, fa- 
voritism of relatives, and other forms of relaxation rendered these 
institutions unable and unwilling to attend properly to the relief of 
the distress. Moreover, the mendicant orders withdrew in the later 
Middle Ages to the towns where they devoted themselves almost 
exclusively to the contemplative life and to preaching."^* 

Women's Work in Charity 

In the early Church the women had a large part in the distribu- 
tion of charity. At first older widows were used. Later deaconesses 
in the Church were used but especially In the West their place in the 
rank, of clergy died out as the organization of the Church lost its 
simplicity. While later they did not have a large part in the distri- 
butions, many gave of their wealth for the purpose of helping the 
poor. 

Many monasteries were started by women for women and did a 
great deal for the poor. In the twelfth century there was a lay sis- 
terhood called Beguines. They cared for the sick, gave instruction 
to poor girls, also sheltered poor girls and widows. These worked 
in the Netherlands and Germany. This sisterhood ended in the 
sixteenth century. A group of women belonging to the third order 
of St. Francis also worked in behalf of the poor in Germany, France, 
and Italy. 

Among women who gave either their all or much of their wealth 
were Nona and Gregoria, mother and sister of Gregory and Ma- 
crlna, sister of Basil, who especially helped during a period of fam- 
ine. Some women who were early widowed spent their lives in 
helping the poor. Some made themselves so poor that they in turn 
had to turn to charity food. 

Foundlings were cared for by the Church and while there were 
no special houses for them, Individuals kept and cared for them 
and the nuns often took them in. 



24. Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. Ill, p. 598. 
6 



158 SCHWARZENAU 

Guilds 

The guilds at that time formed mutual benefit societies for those 
within each guild, and these cared for the needy of their group. 

In the fifteenth century much of the charities was also taken 
over by the municipal authorities but even this was built up and 
encouraged and directed by the Church. 

Almsgiving for Benefit to Giver 

Much has been hinted at that much of the giving through the 
Middle Ages was for the benefit of the giver. This already started 
in the second and third century of Christianity, but grew as time 
went on. Prayers were sought from the needy for the help they 
received, for the purpose of forgiveness of sins and for the lighten- 
ing of the pains of purgatory. There were endowments for institu- 
tions of the poor; that is the revenue from these endowments were 
given to poor who in turn had to pray for the donor or for the 
repose of his soul. Some required masses said for the benefactor. 
Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century held much of the same 
views as those held in the time of Gregory. Almsgiving daily a- 
toned for their smaller sins and thus was considered more im- 
portant even than baptism, as that only forgave past sins; this 
was a daily cleansing. 

"In Gregory the Great, we find this doctrine in as developed 
a state as that in which it was held in the Middle Ages. The fun- 
damental notion is, that God while He remits guilt, does not re- 
mit punishment. This has to be endured by man, and hence re- 
pentance must include the satisfaction of a work, in which man 
inflicts punishment upon himself. He who has done what is not 
allowed, must deny himself what is allowed, by way of satisfac- 
tion; he who has sinned must make up for it by goods. Three 
kinds of works, however, are now everywhere deemed good: 
praying, fasting, almsgiving, and of these the latter is esteemed 
the best and most efficacious. Fasting is good, but almsgiving is 
better. If anyone can do both, both are well; but if he cannot do 
both, almsgiving is better. When it is not possible to fast, alms- 
giving is sufficient. Fasting with almsgiving is doubly good. 
Thus alms are inserted, as an important item in the plan of salva- 
tion. It is they that expiate venal sins, it is they that, to use a 



CHARITY 159 

favorite expression, give wings to repentance. All this — I repeat 
— is under the presupposition of sincere repentance of the heart, 
of which alms alone are said to be an expression. Frequently do 
the teachers of the Church bring this forward, and often do they 
recall it to their hearers' minds, that not the external work, but 
the loving disposition proved thereby is the main point. Very 
beautifully says Gregory the Great, in a collection sermon: 'Al- 
though in this work all the gifts are not equal, still the love must 
be equal. For the liberality of the faithful is not estimated ac- 
cording to the largeness of the gift, but according to the amount 
of benevolent love.' ''~^ 

To us this seems like a magical form of atonement for sin, for 
the deliverance of a soul from purgatory and from hell, and since 
no one knew when they had given enough, more and more was 
given for the sake of a loved one, and an unscrupulous priest 
could use this as a strong means of getting funds. Perhaps the 
famines, poverty, and the stress of the times warranted this 
means of getting money, yet unless it was thoroughly believed was 
a poor means of winning the people, for it would give people the 
idea that they could live as they pleased if only they gave alms 
and the good teachers of the day tried to combat that idea. 
Some of the Results of the Charity of the Middle Ages 

The congregational type of giving gave way to the institutional 
type. There were more larger parishes and few small indepen- 
dent congregations. Then too, some of that first enthusiasm was 
gone and the people gave less through their regular channels of 
giving. Through the breakdown of the government, and while a 
few people became rich, the Church also became very rich. Yet 
in spite of its riches, the Church kept the equality between the 
rich and the poor in a marvelous way through the system of help- 
ing each other by finances on the one hand and by prayers on the 
other. This system, however, corrupted into the merit system 
of giving. 

The brotherhoods and sisterhoods found expression for their 
piety in the helping of the poor as well as in becoming the real 
religious class of the times and the religious life center for west- 
ern Europe. They mingled with the people in their almsgiving, 
thus avoiding extreme asceticism even in the monasteries, and it 



25. Ulhorn, Christian Charity in the Ancient World, p. 285. 



160 SCHWARZENAU 

is sad that these became centers of wealth and their use then was 
gone. 

The result of the merit system and the institutionalizing was 
that poverty was not done away with neither was beggary, but 
only increased. There were many donations but the distress was 
not mastered; real charity no longer corresponded to the gospel 
and only in the reformation were gospel methods in part revived. 

The Church did work for the hum.ane treatment of persons, 
especially to those taken captive by the enem.y, and they redeemed 
m.any of them. The Church helped both the Romans and the 
Germans and made a great appeal to the Germans, for it was 
new to them. It helped to draw them to the Church, some from 
pure motives as seen in real giving in love, others for what they 
could get out of it. 

The theory that the right use of wealth meant giving to the 
Church and the poor was a good thing in this age of great dis- 
tress. The slogan of many seemed to be to live in "Christlike 
poverty." Surely the Church could not have grown as it did in 
this period of suffering if its individual members lived in luxury. 
The mendicant preachers brought the gospel of love and brother- 
hood. The Irish m_issionaries took care of the bodies as well as 
of the souls of their converts. 

The Church or some of her agencies alone seemed to survive 
the fall of the empire, and the poor and suffering whether Roman 
or Germanic found her doors open to them receiving both spir- 
itual and material help. 

"The poor, who came to get bread to appease their hunger, or 
a garment to cover their nakedness, or medicine and advice for 
their sickness, heard at the same time the word of God, preached 
as well as the Church knew how, received comfort from this 
source of all comfort, and acquired strength to go on suffering 
and hoping. If the people did not utterly despair, they owed this 
to the never ceasing charity of the Church. In fact, it was a 
great, a marvelously great, work which the Church effected at 
that time, a work which proves that in the love of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, a new power had entered the world, which even these 
tempests could not destroy, which, on the contrary, only man- 
ifested itself the more great and glorious in the midst of the tem- 
pest and the universal misery. The Church could not save the 



CHARITY 161 

old world, but she sat at its deathbed with help and comfort, and 
lighted up its last hours with such an evening glory as the old 
world had never known in the times of Its greatest prosperity. 
At the same time she stood at the cradle of the new world, of the 
German Christian world, at the cradle of the Middle Ages."^^ 

"To the Middle Ages were also transferred the forms of char- 
ity, as they had been already fashioned, the combination of alms 
with masses for the departed, the memorials, the charitable en- 
dowments for the soul's salvation of the deceased, together with 
hospital and monastery as centers of charity, but all was devel- 
oped in infinitely more copious variety. No period has done so 
much for the poor as the Middle Ages. What wholesome dis- 
tribution of alms; what an abundance of institutions of the most 
various kinds; what numbers of hospitals for all manner of suf- 
ferers; what a series of ministrant orders, male and female, 
knightly and civil; what self-sacrifice and devotedness : In the 
medieval period all that we have observed in the ancient Church, 
first attains its maturity. "^^ 

However, she also developed the merit system^ to the full and 
only in the Reformation period did the primitive notion of alms 
som.ewhat come to its own. "In Christianity is given us the rem_= 
edy for all evils, the inexhaustible source of healthy life, but let 
us not forget how our Lord says: 'By this shall all men know that 
ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.' "^^ 

Is the world today equal to the task before her or will the 
world today come so near yet so far from really answering the 
needs of her people? 



26. Ulhorn, Christian Charity in the Middle Ages, p. 394. 

27. Ulhorn, Charity in the Ancient Church, p. 396. 

28. Ibid., p. 397. 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH AND THE 
RISE OF CAPITALISM 

Paul S. Hersch 

The beginnings of modern capitalism certainly have their ori- 
gin in the expansion of trade in the eleventh, twelfth, and thir- 
teenth centuries. Some of the leading, growing urban areas of 
Italy played a major role in this revival of trade with the East. 
However, before the Crusades, there had only been a taste of 
the lucrative trade that might be developed. The Crusades then 
appear to be the major spark which set the wheels of trade roll- 
ing. Probably one should not say that it was the Crusades that 
caused the rise of capitalism, but the Crusades certainly hastened 
the birth of this new economy. The Crusades burst the already 
weakened dam of feudalism. They gave the peasants an excel- 
lent opportunity to break away from their feudal obligations. 
The Crusaders would bring back fancy products from the East 
and resell them at home. This fact itself began to create a desire 
among the peoples of Europe for the luxury products of the 
East. 

One of the most important factors of the Crusades was that it 
opened the Mediterranean to Western shipping. Because of this, 
merchants from Italy and other areas could begin to ply their 
own trading vessels to the East, and they did not have to use 
Constantinople as a middleman. With the West as a wide open 
market, this new class in Europe — the merchants — took ready 
advantage of the opening of trade with the East on an increas- 
ingly large scale. 

It is also important to observe that these Italian towns became 
veritable arsenals as well as general trading centers for the Cru- 
saders. One could say that the Crusades really lit the match that 
gave new flames to the rise of commerce. The Crusaders discov- 
ered the need of money if they were to trade with the Moslems; 
thus we begin to find the minting of coins on a large scale in this 
period. Schevill points out that because of this small line of com- 
munication that had always been held open to Constantinople, 
the Western people had gotten a taste of the Eastern wealth. 

162 



CAPITALISM 163 

He feels that this might have been partially the cause of the Cru- 
sades themselves. I think we could say that it was an interacting 
process. The Crusades which were primarily religious in motive 
also attracted people because of the wealth of the East, and thus 
all of the Western world became interested in trade with the 
East. Schevill says, ''These articles consisted, besides the much- 
prized spices for the flavoring of the extremely simple and mo- 
notonous diet of the Occident, of products indicative of a highly 
developed civilization, such as jewelry, silks, ivory, and orna- 
ments of gold and silver. It was these precious articles which 
gave birth among the Western barbarians to the idea of the fab- 
ulous wealth of the Orient and which were, though certainly not 
the main cause, a contributory element in these stirring and per- 
plexing invasions of the near East called the Crusades."^ 

The other side of the coin in this new stimulation of trade is 
the fact that the West had to have something to trade. The 
towns in Italy particularly "recognized, subconsciously rather 
than consciously that if they wished to advance their fortunes by 
trade they would have to have something to trade with, and this 
perception led to the stimulation of the local crafts. "- 

However, to get at the real basis for the change from the 
feudal economy to a capitalistic economy is a bit difficult. Flick 
is likely right when he says, "Movable property, that is money, 
became much more important than real property, hence the foun- 
dation of the whole feudal system which rested on land, was 
undermined. Gold became the open sesame and powerful pass- 
port to honor and title. "^ I think it certainly is true that the in- 
creased use of money was very important. It gave rise to a very 
important group — the money-changers. As there were so many 
different coins minted, it took a money-changer to assay the true 
value of the many different coins. These money-changers then 
began loaning their excess capital at quite high rates of interest. 
Yet, we could ask, why was it that money became important to 
the feudal lords or bishops or abbots? Why could they not oper- 
ate their great manors as they always had? 



1. Schevill, History of Florence, p. 285. 

2. Schevill, op. cit., p. 286. 

3. Flick, The Decline of the Medieval Church, Vol. II, p. 381. 



164 SCHWARZENAU 

1 think. Davidsohn has about as good a theory as any at this 
particular point. Schevill points out* that it might be argued that 
this theory was not true for all Europe, but at least the evidence 
pertaining to the rise of capitalism in northern Italy seems to 
substantiate Davidsohn's theory. However, since Italy played 
the leading role in the early rise of capitalism, I think we should 
consider Davidsohn's suggestions. In the first place we must 
remember that in the early Middle Ages, wealth was entirely in 
the form of land — this land being controlled by bishops, abbots, 
and secular lords. The fact is that the lord of a manor just did 
not accumulate a pecuniary reserve. His main return from his 
vassals was rendered in the form of services and supplies. These 
large manors were practically self-sufficient. If the castles needed 
to be protected, the vassals rendered their service to their lord 
by acting as soldiers. In order to put food on the table, the vas- 
sals cultivated the crops, and the lord took his supplies from the 
results of the harvest. However, as we have seen, commerce and 
the Crusades intensified the distribution of goods. Of course the 
result of this was a rise in the standard of living. With the tempt- 
ing delicacies that became available from the East and with the 
available jewelry, silks, etc., the feudal lords found it difficult to 
satisfy their tastes. They just did not have great amounts of 
cash, and it took money to get the things they wanted. Because 
of this fact the lords found it necessary to borrow money from 
the mercatores — a new class of traders. This then was the be- 
ginning of the end, when the feudal lord started to borrow money. 
When they came to tiie mercatores to transact a loan, it was 
likely that the mercatore had the merchandise that the lord want- 
ed. Therefore he might not even give the lord actual cash, but 
simply let him have the goods on a credit basis. Of course a high 
rate of interest was included in this medieval loan shark's scheme. 
When the loan came due, very likely the lord would not have the 
money to liquidate his debt; so he would ask for an extension of 
time. This time extension would be granted but not until the 
feudal lord had thrown in an extra field or vineyard as security 
for his loan. Incidentally, the interest rate might also be raised. 
By this sort of a process the feudal lord was definitely standing 



4. Schevill, op. cit., p. 292. 



CAPITALISM 165 

on sinking sand. He was caught in a vicious cycle which resulted 
in the complete loss of his property. The story^ is told of one 
Giafigliazzi who began lending money in very small amounts to 
the Bishop of Fiesole. With the process started, Giafigliazzi and 
other associated families stripped the bishop and left him a pau- 
per. A certain Cavalianti fleeced the nuns of Santa Felicita in 
the same way. This whole scheme which undercut feudalism was 
a blood-sucking process that affected monasteries, bishops, and 
secular lords alike. "Within a space of two centuries the whole 
landed wealth of the Florentine contado and a large part of Tus- 
cany as well had passed from the original feudal owners into the 
possession of townsmen who, regardless of their social preten- 
sions, were, or at least had begun their existence as traders and 
bankers."*^ 

Moving along with this breakdown of the feudal estates, we 
have the increasing importance of urban centers. Of course these 
merchants, that stripped the feudal lords, were a part of the 
urban development. It has already been mentioned that there 
had been a stimulation of the crafts. With this rapid develop- 
ment, it was not long until the guilds put in their appearance. 
Soon it was that each craft had its own guild association. These 
guild associations were organized to control the production and 
distribution of their products and to protect the members of their 
particular guild. However, this guild system was not based on a 
capitalistic economy, and it was not based on the old feudal econ- 
omy. It is true that each town tried so to control its production 
through the guilds that they might become self-sufficient. These 
cities which rose rapidly in the thirteenth century became quite 
independent. It is certainly true that the Church found it difficult 
to effect any control over the cities, because the Church was still 
thinking in terms of a feudal economy and had effected its control 
via the feudal manors. 

"The new urban communities of burghers could not be con- 
tented in a society regulated by feudal and manorial custom. 
From the early time when professional merchants began to travel 
the highways, they were recognized as a unique group, governed 
by their own customs and entitled to the special protection of 

5. Schevill, op. cit., p. 293. 

6. Schevill, op. cit., p. 294. 
7 



166 SCHWARZENAU 

princes and kings. They had long managed their own affairs, 
settled their own disputes, organized caravans for trade, and 
protected themselves when feudal lords could not or would not 
protect them. They had never been touched by the legal disabil- 
ities of serfdom. They could tolerate no personal limitation, no 
restriction of the freedom of movement that their very business 
demanded. So long as they were only a small and itinerant class 
such exemptions presented no great difficulty. But a considerable 
group of traders and artisans permanently settled on the land 
confronted feudal society with a serious problem. The merchants 
expected to retain all their privileges, which they sought to have 
confirmed for themselves and extended to include their local col- 
leagues, and then enlarged to take in the whole nonagricultural 
community. The burghers grew painfully conscious of the re- 
strictions on their whole manner of life entailed by a body of 
custom that had grown up in a society wholly agricultural. Since 
they did not cultivate the soil, why should they — indeed, how 
could they — be liable for the personal services and customary 
dues paid to the lord by his peasantry? Since they were not vas- 
sals for fiefs, what had they to do with feudal dues and military 
service? Since their world was governed by their own law mer- 
chant, why should they be subjected to feudal law? The more 
advanced of the new groups soon held that they should govern 
themselves, judge themselves, tax themselves; in other words, 
that they ought to have complete local autonomy."^ 

In not being able to contend with the rise of these independent 
cities which were the hotbeds for the rise of capitalism, I believe 
the Medieval Church started on its decline. Thompson pointed 
out that these rising cities were not to be controlled by the old 
feudal custom; and yet we see that the Church was not able to 
imagine any other sort of control. The Church had its feet too 
deeply sunk in feudalistic society. However, we also discover 
that the Church had to make use of the techniques of the rising 
capitalism as they came, but it could not get its thinking adjusted 
to the new economy. 

As the towns developed, the merchants became more and more 
important. They also organized guilds and came to be the ruling 



7. Thompson and Johnson, Ait Introduction to Medieval History, pp. 582-3. 



CAPITALISM 167 

class in the towns. As the wave of commerce moved forward, the 
craftsmen found it difficult to market their goods on an interna- 
tional scale. That is, they found that they could not very well 
produce and distribute goods on an interregional or an interna- 
tional scale. Therefore they began to sell their goods to traders 
who undertook the risk of merchandising the goods. Thompson 
says, "it was from this source that the germs of capitalism emerged 
to permeate and destroy the guilds from within, and replace them by 
a new type of organization."*^ 

The richer guild members — and I suppose some of them may 
have gotten rich through fleecing feudal lords out of their property 
through loans, as has been discussed — began to furnish the raw 
materials to their fellow members and pay them a wage for pro- 
ducing the finished product. The rich guild member would then 
export the products for his own profit. This began to bring about 
distinctions between greater and lesser guilds. The guilds them- 
selves slipped into the control of rich families, and as early as the 
fourteenth century we find that free artisans were becoming mere 
wage earners. Out of this process and boring from within the 
guilds came the merchant-industrialist-capitalist. 

As I indicated before, the papacy got itself all tangled up in 
this new economy, but at the same time was not able to control the 
situation and yet condemned many aspects of the new capitalism. 
The Church always lashed out against usury — and it certainly had 
a right to in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries — but the 
Church had to borrow money and had to pay the interest demanded 
by the powerful merchant-bankers. About the only time the Church 
could bring a usurer to repentance was on his deathbed. It is said, 
"That a usurer on his deathbed was often obliged by the priest, 
before he would administer extreme unction, to restore to his vic- 
tims some of his ill-gotten gains or, as a substitute measure, to 
leave a lump sum to the Church to distribute in charity as it saw 
fit, cannot alter our view of the shocking hypocrisy of the whole 
business."'' 

However, because the Church found money to be quite neces- 
sary, it had to obtain the services of these merchant-bankers. 
Yet many of these merchant-bankers had come into power through 

8. Thompson and Johnson, op. cit., p. 594, 

9. Schevill, op. cit., p. 294. 



168 SCHWARZENAU 

their system of loaning money to bishops, abbots, and secular lords 
and thus confiscating their land. They soon took on the field of 
industrial promotion as did the rich guild members. One example 
of the work of a merchant company in the field of industrial pro- 
motion is recorded by Schevill. "The way in which a Florentine 
company would utilize its position as financial agent of the papacy 
in order to extend its trade may be illustrated by reference to Eng- 
land. When the Pope laid a tax on the English monasteries, a 
Florentine agent residing in England would present the bill. Since 
in all probability the abbots could not immediately pay, the ingra- 
tiating stranger, in his capacity of banker, advanced the assessment 
as a loan secured by the wool which the English monasteries pro- 
duced in great quantities; or, in case a loan was not necessary, the 
Arno visitor, in his capacity of merchant, offered to buy the wool 
outright in order to ship it to the continent, where it was in de- 
mand for the manufacture of cloth. While the wool at first went 
generally to the cities of Flanders, toward the end of the thirteenth 
century the dealers widened their range and diverted the English 
wool in ever larger quantities to the banks of the Arno as an aid 
to the further development of the native woolen industry. "^° 

When we hav^e arrived at this phase of the economic revolution 
— that of interregional and international industrial promotion — 
we can say that capitalism was really beginning to blossom. The 
Crusaders then were the "touch off" for increased trade and re- 
sulted in a stimulation of the crafts. The feudal lords through 
their desire of the high standard of living made available by East- 
ern products and they, having no pecuniary reserves, began to lose 
their land to money lenders. The urban development saw a high 
development of the crafts into guild organization. However, as 
the need for Interregional and international trade developed, the 
rich guild members and the money lenders who now had enough 
capital to be merchant bankers engaged in industrial promotion. 
It Is at this point that we see the seeds of the factory system begin- 
ning to develop, and it is here that capitalism has really gotten on 
Its way. 

In regard to the Church, Flick says, "The power to control the 
civilization of Western Europe had passed out of the hands of the 



10. Schevill, op. cit., p. 297. 



CAPITALISM 169 

clergy and the feudal aristocracy into the hands of very different 
classes. The intellectual leadership of the clergy was transferred 
to the learned laymen. Kings and princes no longer selected their 
counsellors from churchmen but from the jurists and humanists 
whose ranks were recruited mostly from the middle or burgher 
class. This middle class by its brains and ability acquired a monop- 
oly of commerce, trade, business, and wealth, and thus gradually 
became the ascendant class in Europe. The social-economic revo- 
lution, which resulted, was the greatest single factor undermining the 
power and prestige of the Medieval Church during the fifteenth cen- 
tury."" 

11. Flick, op. cit., p. 397. 



Bibliographical Note 

1. Thompson and Johnson. An Introduction to Medieval Europe. 

W. W. Norton & Co. 1937. 

2. Schevill. History of Florence. Harcourt. Brace & Co. 1936. 

3. Flick, The Decline of the Medieval Church, Vol. II. 

Alfred A. Knopf. 1930. 

3. Ogg & Sharp, Economic Development of Modern Europe. 

Macmillan. 1927. 

4. Emerton, The Beginnings of Modern Europe. Ginn & Co. 1937. 



1 



<f^«410LiO*^iOAL I 



r 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Managerial Revolution, James Burnham. The John Day Co., Inc. 
1941, New York. $2.50. 

The sub-title of this book is, What is Happening in the World. There 
is no more apt characterization of the book than to say that the sub-title is 
wholly true. 

We are all reading newspapers and listening to the radio. After reading 
"The Managerial Revolution" one feels that the usual newspaper commenta- 
tor is a child telling a tale which he does not understand. 

One part of the world of pre-September, 1939 was imbued with the 
idea of a coming socialist society which was to be "classless, fully democratic, 
and international." The other part of the world was equally convinced of 
the permanence of the capitalist society. 

But neither theory was right. A new class structure of society has been 
emerging for some time. The "Managerial Revolution" is far advanced. 
The "managers" (the rulers of tomorrow) are no longer money kings but 
the technicians, skilled engineers, organizers of labor and similar function- 
aries ; "those who already in contemporary society are actually managing, 
on its technical side, the actual process of production." The Industrial Revo- 
lution has brought us to this! 

There is much this short review cannot recount. The book really ex- 
plains the newspapers and much besides. Written in 1940 one is startled to 
find how fast and how far events have confirmed the theories of Dr. Burn- 
ham. If he is not a prophet he must be regarded as a first-rate seer. 

His further theories are most interesting and if mistaken in detail may 
still be correct in the direction of thought. 

Is the book optimistic or pessimistic? Neither. It is written as objective 
dispassionate analysis. The author is a teacher of philosophy and history. 

The most interesting chapter is the one the author did not write. It is 
the Position of the Church in the Managerial Society. 

This Unwritten Chapter is the reason every peace-loving Christian 
should read the book. 

Why attempt to write that chapter here? All our discussions of world 
reconstruction are under that general heading. No discussion is complete 
that fails to reckon with the data of this book. 



Johaiin Conrad Bcissel, by Walter C. Klein. Universitv of Penn Press, 
1942. $2.25. 

This is the first book-length modern biography of Conrad Beissel to be 
produced. It is a volume in a series of Pennsylvania Lives sponsored by the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

It is a scholarly and carefully arranged and documented piece of work. 
It is readable. Beissel comes alive and if the author handles him unmerci- 
fully, one feels that he has also an affection for the "mystic and martinet," 
who endured seventy-eight years of earthly pilgrimage. 

170 



BOOK REVIEWS ' 171 

The incredible bickering of the Ephrata community certainly astounds 
one. The reader hardly knows whether to pity these misguided enthusiasts 
and idealists or to admire them for their persistence ; whether to get angry 
or to laugh. One probably does both. 

One cannot say Beissel grows in eminence through this biography. What 
is his claim to fame ? He was a pioneer character of Pennsylvania ! 

The world might have spared him, it seems to the thoughtful reader. 
Yet there were elements of sincerity and steadfastness in his character. 
Klein refers to him by such contradictory titles as the "wizard of Con- 
estoga" and religious founder. He further says Beissel is of the elect com- 
pany of "the weakest minds of the eighteenth century." The biographer has 
sagely observed that "The complete truth about Beissel has been preserved 
in the mind of God." 

One is painfully impressed with the likeness of Beissel to occasional 
acquaintances. Just because the story has riddles, one's interest in it is 
piqued. 

That whole fraternity who study and teach history owe Dr. Klein a 
vote of thanks for his doctoral dissertation. This is definitely the life of 
Beissel. F. E. Mallott. 



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